THE SHIPS OF THE ACADIAN EXPULSION

THE SHIPS OF THE ACADIAN EXPULSION

A Compilation Of Information On The Eighteenth Century Transport Vessels, Used By The British To Transport The Acadians, (‘Neutral French’), During The Acadian Expulsion Of 1755.
INTRODUCTION

In researching for family history and genealogy, the author became curious about the transport vessels that were used to transport his ancestors from Pisiquid, Nova Scotia (Acadia) to Maryland on October 28, 1755. Therefore, the following is the result of the research on the Ships of the Acadian Expulsion.

THE EXPULSION

On Friday, September 5, 1755, the French inhabitants of Acadia were taken into custody by the British officer, Lieutenant Colonel John Winslow. Plans were formulated to expel the Acadians from their homeland quickly through mass expulsion relying on a fleet of sailing vessels. It was the British’s final solution to what they considered a longtime problem.

THE TRANSPORT SHIPS OF THE EXPULSION

It appears that the ships used for the expulsion of the Acadians from Nova Scotia (Acadia), were a variety of makeshift second hand cargo vessels, making up a fleet of about 24 sailing vessels. Governor Shirley and Colonel Lawrence had contracted, or chartered these vessels, by the month, for a flat fee per head, from Charles Apthorp and Thomas Hancock of the Boston Mercantile firm of Apthrop and Hancock. And, after they were outfitted and converted in Boston to hold 2 persons per ton (in some cases 300 to 500 persons), they were brought over from Boston to Nova Scotia. The transports were ready on the 11th of October. (Maryland Historical Magazine Vol III #1 March 1908 – The Acadians (French Neutrals) Transported to Maryland – Basil Sollers – p. 7)

WHAT WERE THE COLONIAL SAILING VESSELS LIKE?

According to Howard I. Chapelle in “THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN SAILING SHIPS”, the methods employed by the shipbuilding in the early days were crude. The planking was hand-sewn by two men, one in a pit and one straddling the log. The heavy timber was shaped and fitted by use of an axe, broad-axe and plane. Because of this crude and laborious process, the bulk of the colonial sailing vessels were small.

CLASSIFICATION, TYPE, OR DESCRIPTION OF THE VESSELS USED

It is difficult to find detailed information on all of the types, or classification of ships used during the mid-eighteenth century. The general classifications of type and rig that were popular with the colonists are easily listed, as they are often given in the records. But some allowances must be made for the ignorance of the recorder, for the listing of a single vessel as a “bark”, a “ship” and a “brigantine” in a single paper is not at all uncommon. Generally speaking, there were seven classifications of vessels in the colonial records. Ships, Sloops, Pinks, Brigantines, Shallops, Ketches and Barks, and all of them are noted in these records up until 1717 when Schooners were added to the list as a separate class. The types, or class, of the colonial vessels correspond in design and appearance with their counterparts in England. The most common group on the lists were the Sloops, from twenty five to seventy tons burden. The next in popularity were brigantines, from 30 to 150 tons. The rigging of a brigantine at this time is open to argument, they were sometimes rigged as Brigges, and possibly as Schooners before a distinction was made for the Schooner’s rigging.

Following are descriptions and illustrations of the different types of sailing vessels that made up the fleet, or convoy, of ships used for the Acadian expulsion of 1755.

* BARKS Barks were square-sterned vessels, usually flush decked, and like the Pinks had no special rig. The name “Bark” was not applied to the rig, but to the hull type. The name was very loosely applied in colonial records, and is often used in place of ship or vessel. Most of the colonial Barks seem to have been Brigantines, although some were rigged as Ships or Ketches. A bark was a three masted vessel square-rigged except for the mizzenmast, which is fore-and-aft rigged. This vessel was also called a Barque.
* BRIGGE or BRIGANTINE A brigge or brigantine was a two masted square-rigged vessel that had square sails on the foremast only, and fore-and-aft rigged on the mainmast. The Brig and Snow came into use in the early part of the eighteenth century. Both were two masted, and were square rigged on both masts. There were only minor differences in their rigging, and in time the word Snow went out of use. A brig carried a cross jack yard instead of a main yard, which differentiated it from the snow, which carried a square mainsail in addition to its’ fore and aft mainsail that was rigged on a try-sail mast. Brigs were fast and were a favorite of privateering and pirates.
* CORVETTE A corvette was a warship equipped with sails and a single tier of guns, and ranking next below a frigate.
* FRIGATE A frigate was originally a light and swift vessel of the Mediterranean, propelled by both oars and sails. A frigate was also an old- style war vessel used from 1650 to 1840, a frigate was smaller than a ship of the line, but larger than a corvette. Originally a frigate had a short deck, forward and aft, at about the same level, and a lower long deck amid-ship Later they were constructed to have a continuous platform running from end to end of the ship without a break. This type of construction was called “frigate fashion”. A frigate was a term used to describe smaller types of warships that had from 24 to 50 cannons that were carried on these flush decks. They were designed for speed and were particularly efficient as commerce destroyers.

GOELETTE: It is sometimes difficult to differentiate between closely related types of vessels and perhaps no fine distinction can be made between the the two masted rig the French called a goelette and that which was commonly designated as a schooner. The word Goelette comes from the Breton word for seagull (gwelon or goelan). Emile Lauvriere, in his “LA TRAGEDIE D’UN PEUPLE” – Histoire du Peuple Acadien – des origines a nos jours – 1923- Editions – Bossard – 43 Rue Madame, 43 – Paris – Tome I – 12th edition Chapter XIV “LE ‘GRAND DERANGEMENT'” pp 457-513, in referring to some of the vessels used in the expulsion, refers to the sloop Dove, as ôla goelette Doveö, schooner Racehorse as ôla goelette Race Horseö and and schooner Ranger as ôla goelette Rangerö. And, following a long list of other vessels he refers to one as Une Goeletteö. I am not sure if he means that this vessel was named “une Goeletteö, or he is referring to an unknown schooner by the French name goelette, or an unknown sloop.

MAN-O-WAR: Any naval vessel armed for active hostilities.

SCHOONER: Schooners were small vessels that evolved in New England. Schooners were a constructed with a square stern and fitted with two masts bearing a sloop sail on each, a bowsprit and a jib. These sails were set fore and aft of the masts and parallel to the keel. In later years schooners were designed with as many as seven masts. The schooner was very economical to operate, requiring fewer men to her sail, than any other sailing vessel. Schooners were used in shallow waters and narrow harbors for coastal trade, but could also be used in the open sea.

SHIP: Ships were full rigged sailing vessel with three or more masts, with square rigging on all three masts with a spanker on the mizzen as well. A full rigged ship was best for long voyages, where square sails could be set in the trade winds and left untouched for days. Except for the jibs and a little steering sail at the stern, called a spanker, all sails on a ship where square sails and were set afthwartship on three masts. Only a craft so rigged could be properly called a ship.

SLOOP: As noted above, according to Howard I. Chapelle in “THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN SAILING SHIPS”, the majority of the colonial sailing vessels were small. And the largest proportion of vessels in the lists of colonial sailing vessels are sloops, from twenty five to seventy tons burden. Sloop rigging during this time was fore-and-after; one mast, carrying a gaff mainsail, two to three head-sails, and a square topsail and “course” (square lower sail). Below the main deck of the sloop were two short decks or “platforms”, the forward for the accommodation of the galley fireplace, and in merchant vessels, the crew. Abaft this, in merchantmen, was the cargo hold, but in men-o-war this space had a portable deck for accommodation of the large crews that were required in that class of ship. Aft was the “great cabin” and after “platform” forming state-rooms or “bedplaces” for the officers. A large hatch was over the hold and a ladderway and sometimes a skylight was over the after platform, which completed the list of deck openings. In the stern there was a short raised quarterdeck, formed by the roof of the “great cabin” The entrance to the cabin was through a doorway in the bulkhead at the fore end of the quarterdeck, opening on the main deck, and covered by a domed hatch. The floor of the “great cabbin” was sunk below the level of the main deck so that the quarterdeck would not be excessively high. The sloop was steered by a long tiller on the quarterdeck. And the quarter deck had open wooden rails. There was usually a figurehead at the stern or a simple carved billet. The illegal trade business required a sharp and fast vessel. The first mention of sharp and fast vessels appears to be in 1730s, and were probably sloops, but soon schooner rigging was adopted. Colonial shipping vessels were usually small, although, we note that a lot of the transports used in the expulsion, including the sloops, were closer to 90 tons burden. Naval records are vague at times as to ship descriptions. A Naval-Sloop could be a vessel of almost any rig, as long as it carried her guns on a single deck, or was commanded by an officer one grade below a Captain in rank. It seems that a Naval-Sloop is more a description of rank and battery, than of rig. In old navies, a Sloop-of-War was a vessel rigged either as a ship, brig, or schooner, and mounting between 18 and 32 guns; later any war vessel larger than a gunboat and carrying guns on one deck only. There are no sloop classification in modern navies. The escort ship Baltimore was designated as a Sloop/War vessel. The Royal Navy’s brigantine or snow “SWIFT” was called a “sloop” it measured 60 feet long by 19.2 feet in width, and was 90-1/2 tons. In most accounts, sloops are described as a single masted fore-and-aft rigged sailing vessel, having a fixed bowsprit and carrying at least one jib: and is now used principally as a racing vessel. There were a considerable number of sloops used as transport vessels during the expulsion. The Schooners and Sloops used in the expulsion ranged from a low of 69 tons to a high of 91 tons, and as mentioned above, the term sloop and schooner may have been used interchangeably when referring to the type of vessel used in transporting the Acadians.

SNOW: A snow was a large two-masted square rigged vessel characterized by having a trysail mast close behind the mainmast. The Snow and the Brig had a common ancestor, and it was difficult to distinguish between the brigs and the snows. The Snow and the Brig came into use in the early part of the eighteenth century. Both were two masted, and were square rigged on both masts. There were only minor differences in their rigging, and in time the word Snow went out of use. A shipping or marine ton is equivalent to 100 cubic feet and the gross tonnage of a vessel refers to the cubic capacity of a vessel, including that of the hull and superstructure, with the exception of certain spaces, such as the pilot house, galleys and companion ways. The net tonnage is the space that remains after the cubic capacity of the engine rooms ballast tanks and crew’s quarters are excluded from the gross tonnage, and could be used for either cargo or persons. (“THE YOUNG UNITED STATES” -1783-1830 by Edwin Tunis – “SHIPBUILDING” – pp. 81-87; 134-136)

THE EMBARKMENT

The embarkation began on October 8, 1755 and continued until the 28th of October. In order to hasten the undertaking, the ships used were overloaded and to make room for even more, the Acadians were forced to leave practically all of their goods on shore, where they were found still lying on the shore by the English settlers who came six years later. The crowding of the ships in excess of their complement made conditions aboard the vessels dangerous to health and prevented the Acadians from carrying much of their household goods with them. (page 7 -Maryland Historical Magazine – Vol. III No. 1, March 1908 – “The Acadians (French Neutrals) Transported to Maryland” – Basil Sollers). In an account of the embarkation, manuscripts show that the authorities considered the Acadians being “shipped” with no more concern than they would have in the shipping of cattle. The lack of, or disregard for the ships’ manifests, shows that they didn’t appear to be concerned with names, only numbers.” (N.B.) I have made some blunder by the loss of the principal list of those who embarked – but the number of souls that embarked on board of these transports were 2921 – how many embarked afterwards I know not” – (ACADIA”-Edourd Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, pp. 120-121) – (Naomi E.S. Griffiths – “THE ACADIAN DEPORTATION: Deliberate Perfidy or Cruel Necessity” – p. 143 [quoting a manuscript account of Brown compiled in 1760’s]) Because of the lack of manifests, or passenger lists, there is no record of those Acadians who died at sea. Only, that they mysteriously disappeared from any record, or census following the expulsion.

DEPORTATION TRANSPORT SHIPS

Following is a list of transports chartered from Apthorp and Hancock of Boston for 40 to 48 pounds per month and used to transport the Acadians out of Acadia in the fall of 1755. The names and the description of the vessels were taken from: Abbreviated copies of the accounts transmitted by Apthorp & Hancock of Boston, to Governor Lawrence, that can be found on pages 285-289 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869; An article on the (“ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS”, by Alfred N. LaFreniere – (page 7-9 – Maryland Historical Magazine – Vol. III No. 1, March 1908; “The Acadians [French Neutrals], Transported to Maryland” – Basil Sollers); Canadian Archives, Report [1905], II. Appendix A, Part III, E, p. 81; Photo copy of an article that appeared in the Windsor, N.S. newspaper entitled “EXPULSION OF ACADIANS ORGANIZED AT WINDSOR”); Gregory A. Wood – THE FRENCH PRESENCE IN MARYLAND – 1524-1800 – p. 65-66) – (Nova Scotia Doc., I, 42-4; and, Emile Lauvriere – “LA TRAGEDIE D’UN PEUPLE” – Histoire du Peuple Acadien – des origines a nos jours – 1923- Editions Bossard – 43 Rue Madame, 43 – Paris – Tome I – 12th edition Chapter XIV “LE ‘GRAND DERANGEMENT'” pp 457-513.

On August 11, 1755 Col. Charles Lawrence issued instructions to his Field Commanders for the transportation of the Acadians from Pisiquid, Mines, Cannard and Coquebid. He stated that the ships will first be sent from Boston to Col. Moncton, commander of Fort Cumberland (formerly Fort Beausejour) at Chignecto, with orders that those transports that are not needed at Chignecto, will be sent to the Minas Bay area. There they were to join the transports that had been sent to Minas from Boston, to help with the transport of the inhabitants from Minas. Of the ten transports sent to Chignecto, three were not needed, the BOSCOWAN, James Newell, master, the DOVE, Samuel Forbes, master and the RANGER, Nathaniel Munroe, master. These three transports were sent to Minas on October 13, 1755 and joined the fleet in the Bay of Minas. (Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” -“Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.) Because Major Handfield had problems in assembling the Acadians in Annapolis Royall, (taking from August until early December), the transports that were sent to him at Annapolis Royal the Acadians in Annapolis Royall, (taking from August until early December), the transports that were sent to him at Annapolis Royall were diverted to Col. Winslow at Minas. Three of these transports were then assigned to Captain Murray at Pisiquid. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson – p. 280) After the inhabitants were loaded aboard the ships at Minas, Col Lawrence instructed that the transports that were not needed at Minas, were to be sent to Major Handfield at Annapolis Royall. The Acadians at Annapolis Royal were then shipped off from Goat Island at 5:00 o’clock in the morning on Monday , December 8, 1755. Lawrence specifically instructed that the sloop Dove be sent to Annapolis to take the inhabitants to Connecticut “to which the vessel belongs”. (p. 271 – 273 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published in 1869, by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865) “On the 29 Octr 1755 the Fleet sailed from the Rendezvous in the Basin of Mines under the Convoy of His Majesty’s Ships.” The transports vessels were as follows:

BOSCOWAN Schooner 95 tons CHIGNECTO TO PENNSYLVANIA:

The schooner BOSCOWAN, 95 tons, David Bigham, Captain, sailed to the Minas Basin and joined the fleet that was in the Bay of Minas. The Boscowan departed from Chignecto on October 13, 1755 with 190 exiles, destined for Pennsylvania. The date of arrival in Pennsylvania is unknown. The Schooner Boscowan, like the others, was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published in 1869, by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865) also (Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.)

BOSCOWAN Schooner 63 tons CHIGNECTO TO MINAS – NOT USED:

The schooner BOSCOWAN, 63 tons, James Newell, Captain, was among the transports that were sent by Col. Charles Lawrence to Chignecto for the use of Col. Moncton. When the Boscowan was not needed at Chignecto, Col. Moncton sent the Boscowan to Minas on October 13, 1755. While at Minas, the Boscowan ran aground at Pisiquid, and was not used as a transport. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson) also (Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut,Inc.) The Schooner Boscowan, like the others, was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, published in 1869, by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865)

EDWARD CORNWALIS Ship 130 tons CHIGNECTO TO SOUTH CAROLINA:

The ship CORNWALIS, 130 tons, Andrew Sinclair, Captain, departed from Chignecto on 13 October, 1755, with 417 exiles under the direction of Col. Moncton. The Cornwalis arrived in South Carolina on 19 November, 1755, with 207 exiles. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson) “Half of the people shipped on the Edward Cornwalis, destination South Carolina, died on Routeö. (In Council Records, Columbia, sc, 480 – Report of the Edward Cornwalis, by Andrew Sinclair, Master, 17 November, 1755: “210 dead, 207 in health,[Naomi E.S. Griffiths – “The Contexts of ACADIAN HISTORY” 1686-1784 p. 93]) The Cornwalis was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published in 1869, by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865).

DOLPHIN Sloop 87 tons PISIQUID TO MARYLAND:

According to copies of accounts, dated —, 1756, transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock, to Governor Lawrence, the Sloop Dolphin, 87 tons Zebad Forman (Farnam) Master, was chartered from Apthorp & Hancock of Boston from 25 August to 20th February, 1756 to carry 230 Neutrals, 56 more than his complement of two to a ton, at 9s. per two Halifax Curry, pr Capt Murray Directionspublished on pages (p. 285 – 293 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, published in 1869, by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865.)Also (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson, p. 278) Some accounts have 174 men aboard the Dolphin. Sloop Dolphin, 87 tons, Captain Farman arrived in Pisiquid from Port Royal on 12 October, 1755 and embarked on 10-12 October. The Dolphin departed from Pisiquid on 27 October, 1755 and arrived at Annapolis Maryland on 15-30 November, 1755 with 230 (56 surnombres) passengers. (Emile Lauviere – “LaTragedie d’un peuple , vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) The monthly charter fee for the Dolphin for 5 months and 26 days was 60 s p. month for hire of a pilot , plus provisions . The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, published in 1869 by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865.) On October 14, 1755, Captain Alexander Murray writes: “0n this fateful Oct. 14th: “I am at this moment embarking the people on board the two Sloops: the “Three Friends” and the “Dolphin”. The shipping point north end of Pisiquid at the junction of the Avon and St. Croix rivers. (Photo copy of an article that appeared in the Windsor, N.S. newspaper entitled “EXPULSION OF ACADIANS ORGANIZED AT WINDSOR”) The Dolphin (87 tons burden, Zebad Farman, master) with 227 (or 230), 56 over her compliment aboard, had embarked from Pisiguit, under the direction of Capt. Alexander Murray on October 27, 1755 and arrived in Maryland on 30 November, 1755. Some accounts have Captain Murray loading the ships on October 27th and the ships leaving the harbour on October 28, 1755 . However, records show that the Sloop Dolphin – Zebad Forman, master – left Pisiquid with 227 aboard. While at sea, The Dolphin, along with 5 other transports, met with a furious gale after their departure from Mines Basin, and entered the harbor of Boston, on November 5, 1755. The fleet of six transports with French Neutrals aboard sought shelter for a number of days, and this delay further depleted their supplies which were low since the beginning of the voyage. (Nova Scotia Doc., I, 42-4) – Because of the dreadful overcrowding and the delay in Boston due to the storms, the ships’ stores were depleted. While in Boston, the vessels were inspected and it was reported that the passengers aboard the Dolphin were “Sickley, occasioned by being to much crowded, 40 lying on deck;” and their water bad. They want an allow of Rum &c.” and “The vessels are to much crowded; their allowances of Provisions short …”. Following the inspection at Boston, 47 passengers were removed due to overcrowding and/or health conditions reducing the number of exiles to 2 per ton. Fresh water and minimal supplies and assistance was given to the passengers by the Massachusetts Bay authorities, and the vessels sailed southward. The Dolphin, continuing its voyage, reached Maryland on November 30, 1755 with 180 aboard. (Gregory A. Wood – THE FRENCH PRESENCE IN MARYLAND _ 1524-1800 – p. 65-66) (Basil Sollers – THE ACADIANS (FRENCH NEUTRALS) TRANSPORTED TO MARYLAND, p. 9), (Al Lafreniere – “Acadian Deportation Ships) Edouard Richard refers to the Dolphin as “Corvette Dolphin” 87 tons Captain Zebad Forman, was used to transport 174 Acadian exiles (56 additional). (ACADIA” – Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121) The Dolphin with 230 exiles and the Ranger with 263 exiles followed the arrival of the Elizabeth and Leopard in the Annapolis Harbor. The two vessels carried 493 men, women and children transported from Pisiquid under the directions of Captain Alexandre Murray On the last 2 days of the months, the other 3 sloops were anchored in the Severn, but their captains seemed most anxious about the Maryland council’s refusal to permit immediate landing in the absence of Gov. Sharpe, who was attending a conference of colonial executives in New York. ( Gregory Wood Acadians in Maryland – A Guide to the Acadians in Maryland in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries.) In a letter dated 17 February, 1996, Stanley Piet of Bel Air Maryland, writes that the “NOTARY PUBLIC RECORD BOOK 1774-1778 in the Hall of Records for the state of Maryland, located at 350 Rowe Blvd., Annapolis Maryland 21401, show the arrival of the ships in Maryland, but there are no people identified. Information listed on the ships Ranger and Dolphin is as follows: “Ranger – Wm. Burkman, Caines Bay, owner. Francis Peirey, Captain, Order from Alexander Murray, Commander of his Majesty’s Troops at Pisgate arrived Severn River, Annapolis 29 November 1755. Sent to Oxford Maryland.” “Dolphin – Zebediah Farnman, master, Sent to Lower Marlborough, Patuxent River”.

DOLPHIN Sloop 90 tons CHIGNECTO TO SOUTH CAROLINA:

The sloop DOLPHIN, 90 tons, William Hancock, Captain, departed from Chignecto with 121 Acadian exiles on 13 October, 1755, destined for South Carolina and arrived in South Carolina on 19 November, 1755. The sloop Dolphin was probably chartered, like the others, for a monthly fee(per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, published in 1869 by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865).

DOVE Sloop 87 tons GRAND PRE (POINTE DES BOUDRO) TO CONNECTICUT:

The sloop DOVE, 87 tons, Samuel Forbes, Captain, departed on 8 (or 13) December, 1755 from Pointe des Boudro (Grand Pre) with 114 exiles, destined for Connecticut and arrived in Connecticut on 30 January, 1756. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson, p.280) The sloop DOVE, Forbes, Captain, departed on 18, December, 1755 from Grand Pre with 114 exiles destined for Connecticut. (Emile Lauviere – “La Tragedie d’un peuple, vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) The sloop Dove was probably chartered, like the others, for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, published in 1869 by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865) However, in his instructions on 11 August, 1755, Lawrence suggests: “If it is not very inconvenient I would have you send the Sloop Dove to Annapolis to take on board part of the inhabitants there destined for Connecticut to which place that vessel belongs.” (p. 273 – SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, published in 1869 by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865) Emile Lauvriere, in his “LA TRAGEDIE D’UN PEUPLE” – Histoire du Peuple Acadien – des origines a nos jours – 1923- Editions – Bossard – 43 Rue Madame, 43 – Paris – Tome I – 12th edition Chapter XIV “LE ‘GRAND DERANGEMENT'” pp 457-513, in listing some of the vessels used in the expulsion on page 500, refers to the Dove, referred to by others as a sloop as ôla goelette Dove, destines for Connecticut, and two other vessels, referred to by others as schooners as ôla goelette Race Horse, destines for Bostonand ôla goelette Ranger, destined for Virginia, probably indicates that some the ships listed as schooners, or sloops were actually goelettes or vice-versa.

EAGLE Sloop Captain McKown HALIFAX TO BOSTON:

According to Al Lafreniere, the Sloop EAGLE, Captain McKown, a commercial vessel, carried some of the stragglers, believed to be the LeBlanc family (4 members and possibility others) from Halifax, leaving on April 1, 1756 and arriving in Boston on May 29, 1756.

EDWARD Snow 139 tons ANNAPOLIS ROYAL TO CONNECTICUT:

The snow EDWARD,139 tons, Ephram Cooke, Master, departed from Annapolis Royal with 278 exiles (41 men, 42 women, 86 boys and 109 girls) on 8 December, 1755 destined for Connecticut and was blown off course by violent storms. It finally put into Antigua and continued on to Connecticut. It finally arrived in Connecticut on May 22, 1756 with 180 exiles. EDWARDS, 278 persons, for Connecticut. (“Carles Belliveau et les seins durant la Deportation et apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens”by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973 p. 4.) The snow Edward, 139 tons destined for Connecticut, for a 28 day voyage with 41 men 42 women, 86 boys and 109 girls for a total of 278 passengers. (Emile Lauviere – “La Tragedie d’un peuple , vol 1, p. 485, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924)

During the voyage, almost 100 had died of malaria and when they arrived in Connecticut their personal items such as blankets, cushions, etc were ordered burned, further adding to their grief. (Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.). According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock, to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 – 293 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, published in 1869 by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 – The “Snow Edward” Ephrem Cook Master was chartered from Apthrop and Hancock from 9th October, 1755 to 29th June, 1756 (Boston Sept 7th, 1756) (New York 22, May 1756). The monthly charter fee for the Edward for 8-2/3 months was 9s sterling per ton per month – plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilot, plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, published in 1869 by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865) The EDWARDS, left Annapolis Royal with 278 persons, bound for Connecticut. The Acadians at Annapolis Royal were shipped off from Goat Island at 5:00 o’clock in the morning on Monday 8 December, 1755.

***** Note: Lucie LeBlanc Consentino writes: “An interesting piece of history…

“The snow, EDWARD, Captain Ephraim Cooke, left Annapolis Royal with 278 exiles and blown off course by violent storms. It finally put into port at Antigua and then continued on to Connecticut, arriving on May 22, 1756 with 180 exiles. Malaria had killed almost 100 exiles. Upon their arrival in New London, Connecticut, their personal items consisting of blankets, cushions and such, were burned causing further dismay and grief to the deported. Among those known to be aboard the EDWARD were Marie BOURG (Bourque), widow of Charles LANDRY with their seven children.

ELIZABETH Ship 166 tons ANNAPOLIS ROYAL TO CONNECTICUT:

According to Al Lafreniere, the Ship Elizabeth replaced the TWO SISTERS that never left Annapolis Royal. The TWO SISTERS was supposed to carry 280 French (42 men, 40 women, 95 boys and 103 girls). The ship ELIZABETH, 166 tons, Ebenezer Rockwell, captain, departed from Annapolis Royal on 8 December, 1755 with 280 exiles ( 42 men, 40 women, 95 boys and 103 girls) destined for Connecticut and arrived in New London Connecticut on 21 January, 1756 with 277 exiles. The Elizabeth left with 280 and three died enroute. Information that supports this can be found in the Connecticut Gazette (copy in the Yale University library).(Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.). Like all of the other transports, the Elizabeth was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869) The Acadians at Annapolis Royal were shipped off from Goat Island at 5:00 o’clock in the morning on Monday 8 December, 1755.

ELIZABETH Sloop 97 (93) tons GRAND PRE TO MARYLAND:

Sailing orders were given to Captain Milbury of the sloop Elizabeth by Col.Lawrence on October 13, 1755. The sloop ELIZABETH, 97 tons, Nathaniel Millbury, Captain, departed on 27 October, 1755 from Grand Pre with 242 exiles, (52 more that the complement of 2 persons per ton) destined for Maryland and arrived in Maryland on 20 November, 1755 (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 279 also p. 304 ) With 186 men aboard. The sloop ELIZABETH, 93 tons, Nathaniel Millbury, Captain, arrived in Grand Pre from Boston on 4 September embarked 186 exiles on October 8 and departed on 8 October, 1755 from Grand Pre with 242 exiles , and arrived in Maryland on 15-30 November, 1755 (Emile Lauviere – “La Tragedie d’un peuple , vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) On November 20, 1755 – The Maryland Gazette announced the arrival of the Elizabeth (93 tons burden, Nathaniel Milbury, master), with 242 passengers from Grand Pre, an excess of 56 over her complement. ( page 7 – Maryland Historical Magazine – Vol. III No. 1, March 1908 – “The Acadians (French Neutrals) Transported to Maryland” – Basil Sollers) Edouard Richard listed a Corvette _____, 93 tons with 186 exiles and with a Captain Milbury listed as master. (Although he does not list the name of the ship, Captain Milbury was the master of of the 97 ton sloop Elizabeth) (ACADIA” – Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121) According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock , to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 – 293 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869 – The Sloop Elizabeth, Nathaniel Milberry Master was chartered from Boston Mercantile Co. Apthorp and Hancock to transport the French inhabitants from Nova Scotia to Maryland from 20 august 1755 to 20th March 1756 – 52 persons more than Complement of 2 to a ton, at 5s.4d. ( —, 1756). also (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 278-79) The monthly charter fee for the Elizabeth was 7 months at 49 12 pr month, pounds sterling – plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilot , plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869) Nathanial Milberry, master of the sloop Elizabeth, with its 242 exiles aboard, was the first to file a complaint, arguing that he was unfairly ordered to the Wicomico River area of the Eastern Shore to wait Sharpe’s return, but that no provisions were made for any compensation for food and supplies. (Gregory Wood Acadians in Maryland – A Guide to the Acadians in Maryland in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries).

ENDEAVOR (ENCHEREE) Ship 83 tons POINTE DES BOUDRO TO VIRGINIA:

The Endeavor – Captain John Stone, arrived from Boston on Saturday – August 30, 1755 and anchored at the entrance to the Gaspereau River. The ship ENDEAVOR (ENCHEREE), 83 tons, John Stone Captain departed 27 October, 1755 from Pointe des Boudro (Grand Pre) with 166 exiles for Virginia and arrived in Virginia on 11 (or 13) November, 1755. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 300 also p. 277) – Had 166 men aboard. The ship ENDEAVOR , 83 tons, John Stone Captain arrived at Grand Pre (Pointe des Boudro) from Boston on August 30 and embarked on 19 October The Endeavor departed 27 October, 1755 from Pointe des Boudro (Grand Pre) with 166 exiles for Virginia and arrived in Virginia on 15-30 November, 1755. (Emile Lauviere – “La Tragedie d’un peuple , vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) The Endeavor was one of the six transports that took shelter from a fierce winter storm in the Boston Harbour on November 5, 1755. While at Boston to seek shelter for a number of days, the vessel was inspected and an undisclosed number of Acadians were removed to reduce the number aboard to 2 persons per ton. The delay in the voyage when they were in the Boston Harbour for a few days further depleted their supplies which were low since the beginning of the voyage. So, fresh water and minimal supplies and assistance was given to the passengers on board the Endeavor by the Massachusetts Bay authorities and the vessels sailed southward. (Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.). Edouard Richard mentions a “Corvette Endeavor”, 83 tons with a Captain Stone as master being used to transport 166 exiles. (ACADIA” – Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121) According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock , to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 – 293 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869 – the Sloop Endeavor (also known as Encheree), John Stone master was chartered from Boston Mercantile Co. Apthorp and Hancock from hence to Minas & Virginia to carry off French inhabitants from 21 August to 11 December. The monthly charter fee for the Endeavor was 3 months 21 days 44 pounds 54 pr month , pounds sterling – plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilot , plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869) According to the publication “The Acadian Exile in St. Malo”, the governor of Virginia refused to accept the Acadians that were allotted to Virginia, and the 1,500 Acadians sent to Virginia on October 25, 1755 were in Virginia were not allowed to disembark and more of them died aboard the crowded ships during the 4 months that the ship were anchored in the Williamsburg harbor. They were then transported to England and placed in concentration camps in the port cities of their arrival, where they languished until after the Treaty of Paris, in 1763, when they were released and repatriated (sent) to the maritime ports of Normandy and Brittany.

ENDEAVOR Sloop 96 tons CHIGNECTO TO SOUTH CAROLINA:

The sloop ENDEAVOR, 96 tons, James Nichols, captain, departed from Chignecto on 13 October, 1755 with 121 exiles destined for South Carolina and arrived in South Carolina on 19 November, 1755. Al Lafreniere lists an ENDEAVOR, James Nichols, master, as arriving at South Carolina with 121 exiles. It is not known how many exiles boarded at Chignecto. (Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.) The sloop Endeavor was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869)

ENDEAVOR Sloop 96 tons CHIGNECTO TO SOUTH CAROLINA:

The sloop ENDEAVOR, 96 tons, James Nichols, captain, departed from Chignecto on 13 October, 1755 with 121 exiles destined for South Carolina and arrived in South Carolina on 19 November, 1755. Al Lafreniere lists an ENDEAVOR, James Nichols, master, as arriving at South Carolina with 121 exiles. It is not known how many exiles boarded at Chignecto. (Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.). The sloop Endeavor was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869).

The British ships Endeavor – Captain John Stone; Industry – Captain George Goodwin and Mary – Captain Andrew Dunning Sunday – August 31, 1755 – arrive and go to Pisiguit. Capt Jonathan Daves of the NEPTUNE was replaced as master OF THE NEPTUNE by the owner William Ford.

EXPERIMENT Brigge 136 tons ANNAPOLIS ROYAL TO NEW YORK:

The Brigge EXPERIMENT,136 tons – Benjamin Stoddard, captain departed on December 8, 1755 from Annapolis Royal with 250 exiles (40 men, 45 women, 56 boys and 59 girls) for New York and arrived 30 May, 1756. The Experiment, 136 tons destined for New York ,for a 28 day voyage with 40 men 45 women, 56 boys and 59 girls for a total of 200 passengers. (Emile Lauviere -“La Tragedie d’un peuple , vol 1, p. 485, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) EXPERIMENT, 200 persons, for New York. (“Carles Belliveau et les seins durant la Deportation et apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens” by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973 p. 4.) Al Lafreniere states that the EXPERIMENT, Benjamine Stoddard, master, was blown off course as was the EDWARD and arrived in New York, via Antigua with 200 exiles. The Experiment left Annapolis Royal with 250 exiles. (Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.) According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock , to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 – 293 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869 – The Brigge Experiment, Benjamin Stoddard Master 136 tons was chartered from Becton Mercantile Co apthorp and Hancock from 10th October 1755 to 27th May 1756. The monthly charter fee for the Experiment was 7 months 16 days at 9s sterling per ton per month , pounds sterling – plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilott , plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869)

HANNAH Sloop 70 tons GRAND PRE AND GASPEREAU TO PENNSYLVANIA:

The Sloop HANNAH, 70 tons, Richard Adams, Captain, departed on 27 October, 1755 from Grand Pre and Gaspereau with 140 exiles destined for Pennsylvania and arrived in Pennsylvania on 19 November, 1755. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 277-78) – 140 men aboard. Sloop HANNAH, 70 tons, Adams, Captain, arrived in Grand Pre from Port Royal on 10 October with departed on 27 October, 1755 from Grand Pre and Gaspereau with 140 exiles (2 surnombres) destined for Pennsylvania and arrived in Pennsylvania on 115-30 November, 1755 with 137 exiles.(Emile Lauviere – “La Tragedie d’un peuple , vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) Al Lafreniere states that the HANNAH, Richard Adams, master left Grand Pre with 140 exiles, and arrived in Pennsylvania with 137 exiles. (Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.). Upon their arrival in Pennsylvania, the colony was in the grips of raging Francophobia, which soon translated into Pennsylvania’s governor Robert H. Morris placing the exiles under armed guard aboard the three vessels, the HANNAH, THREE FRIENDS and the SWAN) that brought them from Nova Scotia. Because of this, the Acadians on board the three vessels succumbed to epidemic diseases. Because of this, they were quarantined aboard their vessels until legislation on March 5, 1756 provided for their dispersal throughout the easternmost Pennsylvania provinces. ( Carl A. Brasseaux – Scattered to the Winds – The Dispersal and Wanderings of the Acadians, p. 19) Edouard Richard mentions a “Corvette Hannah”, 70 tons, Captain Adams, was used to transport 140 exiles. (ACADIA” – Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121) According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock , to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 – 293 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869 – The Sloop Hannah, Richard Adams, Master was chartered from Boston Mercantile Apthorp and Hancock from hence to Annapolis Royall & Philadelphia, to carry off French inhabitants from 20 August, 1755 to 23 December, 1755. The monthly charter fee for the Hannah was 4 months 3 days at 37 pounds 6s 8d per month, pounds sterling – plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilott , plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. ( p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869) Sloops Hannah, Three Friends and Swan reached the Delaware about 18 November, 1755 with 454 aboard and were sent to province Island and later in ucks, Chester, Lancaster, and Philadelphia Counties. The exiles declared that their plight to be far worse than the old Testament world of Egyptian or Babylonian captivity. (p. 18 – Gregory Wood Acadians in Maryland – A Guide to the Acadians in Maryland in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries.).

HELENA Ship 166 tons ANNAPOLIS ROYAL TO MASSACHUSETTS:

The ship HELENA, 166 tons, Samuel Livingston, Captain, departed from Annapolis Royal on 27 October, 1755 with 323 exiles (52 men, 52 women, 108 boys and 111 girls) destined for Boston Massachusetts and arrived in Boston on 19 November, 1755. HELENA, The other transports were the HELENA, with 323 persons for Boston. (“Carles Belliveau et les seins durant la Deportation et apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens” by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973, p. 4.) The Helena, 166 tons, destined for a 28 day voyage with 52 men, 52 women, 108 boys and 111 girls for a total of 323 passengers. (Emile Lauviere -“La Tragedie d’un peuple, vol 1, p. 485, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) The Helena was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869).

HOBSON Ship HALIFAX TO ANNAPOLIS ROYAL TO SOUTH CAROLINA:

The ship HOBSON, Edward Whitewood Master departed on 8 December, 1755 from Halifax with 342 exiles (42 men, 46 women, 120 boys and 134 girls) destined for South Carolina and arrived in South Carolina on 15 January, 1756. HOPSON, 342 persons, for South Carolina. (“Carles Belliveau et les seins durant la Deportation et apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens” by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973, p. 4.) The Hopson, 177 tons destined for South Carolina, for a 42 day voyage with 42 men 45 women, 120 boys and 134 girls for a total of 342 passengers. (Emile Lauviere – “La Tragedie d’un peuple, vol 1, p. 485, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock, to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 – 293 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869 – The Ship Hopson, Edward Whitewood Master, was chartered from Boston Mercantile Co Apthorp and Hancock from Halifax to Annapolis and South Carolina with French inhabitants from October 10th, 1755 to 13th April, 1756 (—, 1756). The monthly charter fee for the Hobson was 6 months 4 days at 76 pounds 19s , sterling pr month, pounds sterling – plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilot , plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869).

INDUSTRY Sloop 86 tons POINTE DES BOUDRO TO VIRGINIA:

On Saturday – August 30, 1755 Sloop INDUSTRY, 86 tons- Captain George Goodwin, Captain arrives from Boston and anchors at the entrance to the Gaspereau River, and on 27 October, 1755 she departed from Pointe des Boudro with 177 exiles arriving in Virginia on 13 November, 1755. (Some records list 172 men as passengers) Sloop INDUSTRY, 86 tons- Captain George Goodwin, Captain arrives from Boston and anchors at the entrance to the Gaspereau River, Pointe-aux- Boudreaux on 30 October, 1755 embarked 19 October with 177 exiles and she departed from Pointe des Boudro destined for Williamsburg Virginia. (Emile Lauviere – “La Tragedie d’un peuple , vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) The sloop Industry was one of 5 transports that departed from Grand Pre and Gaspereau to Pennsylvania (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 277 and also on p. 300) Edouard Richard mentions a “Corvette Industry”, 86 tons, Captain Goodwin, being used to transport 172 exiles. (ACADIA” – Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121) According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock, to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 – 293 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869 – The Sloop Industry, George Goodwan, Master was chartered from the Boston Mercantile Co Apthorp and Hancock from the 20th August to 26th December, 1755 to carry French inhabitants from Minas to Virginia. (—, 1755). – (pages 285-293 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869) The monthly charter fee for the Industry was 4 months 6 days 45 17 4 pr month , pounds sterling – plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilott, plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. ( p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869) According to the publication “The Acadian Exile in St. Malo”, the governor of Virginia refused to accept the Acadians that were allotted to Virginia, and the 1,500 Acadians sent to Virginia on October 25, 1755 were in Virginia were not allowed to disembark and more of them died aboard the crowded ships during the 4 months that the ship were anchored in the Williamsburg harbor. They were then transported to England and placed in concentration camps in the port cities of their arrival, where they languished until after the Treaty of Paris, in 1763, when they were released and repatriated (sent) to the maritime ports of Normandy and Brittany.

JOLLY PHILLIP Schooner 94 tons CHIGNECTO TO GEORGIA:

The schooner JOLLY PHILLIP, 94 tons- Jonathan Waite, Captain, departed from Chignecto on 13 October, 1755 with 129 exiles destined for Georgia and arrived in Georgia with approximately 120 exiles on 30 December, 1755. This Schooner was from Falmouth (now Portland) Maine.(Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.). The Jolly Philip was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. ( p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869)

LEOPARD Schooner 87 tons GRAND PRE TO MARYLAND:

The schooner LEOPARD (Leonard, Leynard), 87 tons, Thomas Church Master, departed from Grand Pre on 27 October, 1755 with 178 exiles (an excess of 4 over her complement) destined for Maryland and arrived in Maryland on 30 December, 1755. With 174 men aboard. The schooner LEOPARD (Leonard, Leynard), 87 tons, Thomas Church Master, arrived in Grand Pre from Boston on 6 September and embarked 178 exiles on 8 October. She departed from Grand Pre on 27 October, 1755 with 178 exiles (an excess of 4 over her complement) destined for Annapolis Maryland and arrived in Maryland on 30 December, 1755. With 174 exiles aboard. (Emile Lauviere – “La Tragedie d’un peuple , vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) The LEOPARD ( also known as Leonard or Leynard)- Captain Thomas Church arrived at Minas Basin on Saturday – September 6, 1755. Edouard Richard mentions a Schooner Leopard, Captain Church, 87 tons being used to transport 174 exiles. (ACADIA” – Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121) According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock , to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 – 293 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869 – The Schooner LEYNORD, THOMAS CHURCH MASTER was chartered from 20th August 1755 to 10th February 1756, is 5 months 21 days at 46 pounds 8 lawful money pr. month., etc.. The monthly charter fee for the Leynord was 5 months 21 days at 46 pounds 8s lawful money per month, pounds sterling – plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilott , plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869) Thomas Church, Master of the Schooner Leopard, 87 tons burden, was given sailing orders for the Leopold by John Winslow on October 13, 1755 and the Leopard left Grand Pre on October 28, 1755 with 178 passengers aboard , an excess of 4 over her complement. She arrived in Annapolis harbor on November 20, 1755. The ship had carried the Acadians from Grand Pre. The arrival was announced on November 20, 1755 by the Maryland Gazette (page 7 – Maryland Historical Magazine – Vol. III No. 1, March 1908 – “The Acadians (French Neutrals) Transported to Maryland – Basil Sollers) Later when the Leopard was transporting troops under the command of General Preble from Halifax to Boston, they picked up 70 exiles at Pubnico that were destined for North Carolina. When the Leopard landed at Boston , the Acadian exiles disembarked. Captain Church reported: ” They arose a great dissension among the French and they all rose, forced their way on shore with their baggage and it was not in my power to proceed . . . ” (p. 7 Basil Sollers) also (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 277 and also p. 298) Nathanial Milberry, master of the sloop Elizabeth, with its 242 exiles aboard, was the first to file a complaint, arguing that he was unfairly ordered to the Wicomico River area of the Eastern Shore to wait Sharpe’s return, but that no provisions were made for any compensation for food and supplies.

The Leopard, with 178 passengers aboard, was the first to anchor in Annapolis Harbor, on November 24, 1755. The Leopard was newly constructed in New England and registered on April 10, 1755 at Cambridge. The schooner was owned and captained by Thomas Church, who alone of the four seemed adequately prepared to wait in Severn for Maryland officials to decide the proper disembarkation of a group practically equal to the population of Annapolis. The Passengers of the Leopard wound up in Baltimore and Annapolis, Maryland. On the last 2 days of the months, the other 3 sloops were anchored in the Severn , but their captains seemed most anxious about the Maryland council’s refusal to permit immediate landing in the absence of Gov. Sharpe, who was attending a conference of colonial executives in New York. (Gregory Wood Acadians in Maryland – A Guide to the Acadians in Maryland in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries.)

MARY Sloop 90-1/2 tons POINTE DES BOUDRO TO VIRGINIA:

On Saturday – August 30, 1755 Sloop MARY, sloop, 90 tons – Andrew Dunning, captain arrived from Boston and anchored at the entrance to the Gaspereau River, and on 27 October, 1755 departed from Pointe des Boudro (Grand Pre) with 182 exiles arriving in Virginia on 13 November, 1755. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 277 also p. 300) 181 men aboard Sloop MARY, sloop, 90-1/2 tons – Andrew Dunning, captain arrived from Boston on 30 August and anchored at the entrance to the Gaspereau River (Pointe-aux- Boudreaux) , she embarked 182 exiles on 10 October and on 27 October, 1755 departed from Pointe des Boudro (Grand Pre) destined for Williamsburg Virginia. (Emile Lauvriere – La Tragedie d’un peuple, vol I, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924)Edouard Richard mentions a “Corvette Mary”, 90-1/2 tons, Captain Denny, being used to transport 181 exiles (ACADIA” – Edouard Richard Vol. 2,Chapter XXXI, p. 121) According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock , to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 – 293 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869 – Sloop Mary, Andrew Dunning master was chartered from Boston Mercantile Co Apthorp and Hancock from hence to Minas &Virginia , to carry off French inhabitants from 20th August to 12 December, 1755 (—,1755). The monthly charter fee for the Mary, was 3 months and 23 days at 48 pounds 5 4d pr mth. pounds sterling – for a total (including p[ilot at 60s pr month) of 139 pounds 166 pounds sterling, plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869) According to the publication “The Acadian Exile in St. Malo”, the governor of Virginia refused to accept the Acadians that were allotted to Virginia, and the 1,500 Acadians sent to Virginia on October 25, 1755 were in Virginia were not allowed to disembark and more of them died aboard the crowded ships during the 4 months that the ship were anchored in the Williamsburg harbor. They were then transported to England and placed in concentration camps in the port cities of their arrival, where they languished until after the Treaty of Paris, in 1763, when they were released and repatriated (sent) to the maritime ports of Normandy and Brittany.

MARY Schooner CAPE SABLE TO NEW YORK:

The Schooner Mary was listed as an unknown Schooner, but probably was Capt. Durning’s 2nd voyage). The Schooner, (name and tonnage unknown), Andrew Durning, Captain departed from Cape Sable with 94 exiles destined for New York. The date of departure is unknown, but the schooner arrived at New York on 28 April, 1756. Captain Andrew Dunning, must have returned to Nova Scotia after his voyage on the Mary to Virginia, as he is reported to have shipped about 100 exiles (94 arrived), in a schooner from Cape Sable to New York. His schooner arrived in New York on April 28, 1756.(Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS”-“Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.). This schooner was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869)

NEPTUNE Schooner 90 tons PISIQUID TO VIRGINIA:

On Saturday – August 30, 1755 the Schooner NEPTUNE, 90 tons – Jonathan Davis, captain – arrives from Boston and anchors at the entrance to the Gaspereau River. Some reports have the Neptune arriving on Sunday – August 31, 1755 with 180 Men aboard. Schooner NEPTUNE, 90 tons – Jonathan Davis, (Ford) captain – arrives in Pisiquid from Boston on 31 August and anchors at the entrance to the Gaspereau River She embarqued 206 exiles (27 surnombres) on October 10-12 and departs on 27 November destined for Williamsburg, arriving on 15-30 November. (Emile Lauvriere – La Tragedie d’un peuple, vol I, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) On October 14, 1755 , Jonathan Davis was Captain of the “Neptune” 156 tons and he was replaced by the owner William Ford as Master.” ( Photo copy of an article that appeared in the Windsor, N.S. newspaper entitled “EXPULSION OF ACADIANS ORGANIZED AT WINDSOR”). The Schooner NEPTUNE, 90 tons with owner William Ford as Master.- 1755 departed from Pisiquid with 207 exiles 27 more than the complement on 27 October, 1755 and arrived in Virginia on 13 November, 1755.(The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 278-279 also p. 300) The Neptune was one of the six transports that took shelter from a fierce winter storm in the Boston Harbour on November 5, 1755. While at Boston to seek shelter for a number of days, the vessel was inspected and said to be “healthy tho 40 lie on the deck”. 29 Acadians were removed by the harbour authorities to reduce the number aboard to 2 persons per ton. (Maryland Historical Magazine – Vol. III No. 1, March 1908 – “The Acadians (French Neutrals) Transported to Maryland” – Basil Sollers p. 7) The delay in the voyage when they were in the Boston Harbour for a few days further depleted their supplies which were low since the beginning of the voyage. So, fresh water, minimal supplies and assistance was given to the passengers on board the Neptune by the Massachusetts Bay authorities and the vessels then sailed southward. Edouard RICHARD mentions a Schooner Neptune, 90 tons, Captain Davis, being used to transport 180 exiles – (27 additional). (ACADIA” – Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121) According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock , to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 – 293 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869 – The Schooner Neptune, William Ford master was chartered from the Boston Mercantile Co. Apthorp and Hancock from hence to Virginia to carry off the French inhabitants. The Neptune was chartered from 20th August to 17th December, and carried 27 Neutrals more than Compliment at 5s. 43/4d. and supplies for 207. The monthly charter fee for the Neptune was 3 months 28 days at 48 pounds pr mth., pounds sterling – plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilott , plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869) According to the publication “The Acadian Exile in St. Malo”, the governor of Virginia refused to accept the Acadians that were allotted to Virginia, and the 1,500 Acadians sent to Virginia on October 25, 1755 were in Virginia were not allowed to disembark and more of them died aboard the crowded ships during the 4 months that the ship were anchored in the Williamsburg harbor. They were then transported to England and placed in concentration camps in the port cities of their arrival, where they languished until after the Treaty of Paris, in 1763, when they were released and repatriated (sent) to the maritime ports of Normandy and Brittany.

PEMBROKE Snow 139 tons ANNAPOLIS ROYAL TAKEN OVER AND DIVERTED TO ST. JOHN RIVER:

The Snow PEMBROKE, 139 tons, Milton __?__ , Captain, departed in January from Annapolis Royal,under the direction of Major Handfield, with 232 exiles destined for North Carolina . The Pembroke was taken over by the Acadians and sailed to St. Mary’s Bay in Newfoundland and then across the Bay of Fundy to the St. John River. – (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson 281) Pembrook The Pembrook was of 42 tons, victualized for 139 days; she had on board 33 men. 37 women, 70 sons, and 92 daughters forming a total of 232 persons. She sailed from Goat Island on December 8, 1755, bound for North Carolina. The Pembrook was taken over by the Acadians aboard and sailed to St. John River and landed the Acadians at the port on February 8, 1756. (“Carles Belliveau et les seins durant la Deportation et apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens” by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973, p.4.) The Pembroke, 139 tons destined for North Carolina , for a 42 day voyage with 33 men, 37 women, 70 boys and 92 girls for a total of 232 passengers. (Emile Lauviere -“La Tragedie d’un peuple, vol 1, p. 485, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) The Snow Pembroke was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869) Some reports say that the crew of the Pembroke was turned over to the Amerindians, and that the Acadian exiles joined Boishebert in his fight against the British. Another report says that the PEMBROKE was captured by privateers and that the Acadian exiles were returned to Annapolis Royal, (Perhaps to be exiled again on the ELIZABETH?).(Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.). The Pembrook was of 42 tons, victualized for 139 days; she had on board 33 men. 37 women, 70 sons, and 92 daughters forming a total of 232 persons. She sailed from Goat Island on December 8, 1755, bound for North Carolina. The Pembrook was taken over by the Acadians aboard and sailed to St. John River and landed the Acadians at the port on February 8, 1756 The Acadians at Annap[olis Royal were shipped off from Goat Island at 5:00 o’clock in the morning on Monday 8 December, 1755.

PRINCE FREDERICK Ship 170 tons CHIGNECTO TO GEORGIA:

The ship PRINCE FREDERICK, 170 tons, William Trattles Captain, escorted by H.M.S. Syren, departed 13 October, 1755 from Chignecto under the direction of Col. Moncton, with 280 exiles (mostly men who had born arms at Fort Beausejour) destined for to Georgia). The Prince Fredrick arrived in Georgia on 30 December, 1755. The governor of Georgia ordered the ship away, but the captain refused and was allowed to land on December 14, 1755. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson 288) The PRINCE FREDRICK, William Trattles, Master, arrived in Georgia with approximately 280 exiles about the end of December, 1755. (Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.). The Ship Prince Fredrick was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869)

PROSPEROUS Sloop 75 tons POINTE DES BOUDRO TO VIRGINIA:

The sloop PROSPEROUS, 75 tons, Daniel Bragdon, Captain, was one of 5 transports that departed from Pointe des Boudro (Grand Pre) on 27 October, 1755. The Prosperous transported 152 exiles to Virginia arriving in Virginia on 13 November, 1755. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson 300) With 150 Men aboard. The sloop PROSPEROUS, 75 tons, Daniel Bragdon, Captain, arrived at Pointe des Boudro (Grand Pre) from Port Royal on 10 October departed from Pointe des Boudro (Grand Pre) . She embarked 152 exiles on 19 October and departed on 27 October, 1755 destined for Williamsburg Virginia arriving on 15-30 November, 1755. (Emile Lauvriere – La Tragedie d’un peuple, vol I, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) Edouard Richard mentions a “Corvette Prosperous”, 75 tons, Captain Bragdon, being used to transport 150 exiles. (ACADIA” – Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121) According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock, to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 – 293 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869 – The Sloop Prosperous – Daniel Bragdon, Master was chartered from the Boston Mercantile Co. Apthorp and Hancock from 20th August, 1755 to 21 January, 1756 (—, 1756). – The monthly charter fee for the Prosperous was 5 months 1 day at 40 pr month – lawful money – plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilot, plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869) According to the publication “The Acadian Exile in St. Malo”, the governor of Virginia refused to accept the Acadians that were allotted to Virginia, and the 1,500 Acadians sent to Virginia on October 25, 1755 were in Virginia were not allowed to disembark and more of them died aboard the crowded ships during the 4 months that the ship were anchored in the Williamsburg harbor. They were then transported to England and placed in concentration camps in the port cities of their arrival, where they languished until after the Treaty of Paris, in 1763, when they were released and repatriated (sent) to the maritime ports of Normandy and Brittany.

PROVIDENCE Sloop HALIFAX TO NORTH CAROLINA:

According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock , to Governor Lawrence dated January 13, 1756 and published on pages p. 285 – 293 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869. The PROVIDENCE, Sloop, ? tons – Samuel Barron, Captain (John Campbell Master)- carried some 50 of the exiles from Halifax to North Carolina – The PROVIDENCE departed from Halifax on 30 December, 1755 and arrived in North Carolina on ?? . The monthly charter fee for the Providence per certificate was 12s 6 d , pounds sterling – plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilot , plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869) Among the financial record of the dispersion is the following: “To John Campbell to freight of fifty French people brought from Halifax to N.C. in sloop Providence, per certif. at 12s 6d…(The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson 300).

RACEHORSE Schooner POINTE DES BOUDRO TO MASSACHUSETTS:

The schooner RACEHORSE, ? tons – John Banks, Captain, departed on 20 December, 1755 from Pointe des Boudro (Grand Pre) with 120 exiles destined for Massachusetts and arrived in Boston on 26 December, 1755. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson 280) The schooner RACEHORSE, ? tons – John Banks, Captain, departed on 20 December, 1755 from Pointe des Boudro (Grand Pre) with 120 exiles destined for Boston Massachusetts. (Emile Lauviere – “La Tragedie d’un peuple, vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) The Racehorse was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869) Emile Lauvriere, in his “LA TRAGEDIE D’UN PEUPLE” – Histoire du Peuple Acadien – des origines a nos jours – 1923- Editions – Bossard – 43 Rue Madame, 43 – Paris – Tome I – 12th edition Chapter XIV “LE ‘GRAND DERANGEMENT'” pp 457-513, in listing some of the vessels used in the expulsion on page 500, refers to the Dove, referred to by others as a sloop as ôla goelette Dove, destines for Connecticut, and two other vessels, referred to by others as schooners as ôla goelette Race Horse, destines for Bostonand ôla goelette Ranger, destined for Virginia, probably indicates that some the ships listed as schooners, or sloops were actually goelettes or vice-versa.

RANGER Sloop 90 (91) tons PISIQUID TO MARYLAND:

According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock , to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 – 293 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869 – The Sloop RANGER, 90 tons burden – Frances Piery (Piercy) Master was chartered from the Boston Mercantile Co. of Apthorp and Hancock from 20th August 1755 to 30th January, 1756 to carry 208 French persons 81 persons more than the complement of 2 to ton at 4s. 6d. With 182 Men aboard. The Sloop RANGER, 91 tons burden – Frances Piery (Piercy) Master arrived in Pisiquid from Port Royal on 16 October and embarked on 10-12 October, She departed on 27 October destined for Annapolis Maryland and arrived on 15-30 November with 263 exiles (81 surnombres). (Emile Lauviere – “La Tragedie d’un peuple , vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) The monthly charter fee for the Ranger was 5 months 10 days at 48 pounds 10 8 pr. month , pounds sterling – plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilot , plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869) “The sloop Ranger 90 tons burden, Nathaniel Monroe, Master had originally been sent to Chignecto, but was not needed and on October 13, 1755 was sent to Minas to join the fleet assembled in the Grand Pre and Pisiquid area. The Sloop Ranger arrived in Pisiquid October 16, 1755 (“EXPULSION OF ACADIANS ORGANIZED AT WINDSOR”). On October 14, 1755 , Captain Alexander Murray writes: “0n this fateful Oct. 14th: ” I am at this moment embarking the people on board the two Sloops: the “Three Friends” and the “Dolphin” . He also mentions his waiting for another transport vessel that later turns out to be the Ranger and he uses the Ranger to load the remainder of the inhabitants of Pisiquid. The shipping point of the transports from Pisiquid was the north end of Pisiquid at the junction of the Avon and St. Croix rivers. (Photo copy of an article that appeared in the Windsor, N.S. newspaper entitled “EXPULSION OF ACADIANS ORGANIZED AT WINDSOR”) The Sloop Ranger, 90 tons – Francis Piecrey, master – was loaded with the Acadians from Pisiquid with about 323 (or 263), 83 over her compliment (it is believed that Firmin Landry and his family were included) and departed for Maryland, under the direction of Capt. Alexander Murray, on 28, October, 1755 and arrived in Annapolis Maryland on November 30, 1755. (Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.). RANGER, Sloop, 90 tons – Frances Piery, captain – departed 27 October, 1755 from Piziquid (Minas Basin) with 263 exiles (83 in excess of her complement) and arrived in Maryland on 30 November, 1755 (Maryland Historical Magazine – Vol. III No. 1, March 1908 – “The Acadians (French Neutrals) Transported to Maryland” – Basil Sollers p. 7) Sloop Ranger, Captain Peiry, 91 tons arrived at Pisiquid from Port Royal on 16 October and embarked from Pisiquid on October 10-12 and departed on 27 October arriving at Annapolis Maryland between November 15-30 November 1755 with 263 passengers. (Emile Lauvriere – La Tragedie d’un peuple, 1924, vol I) On November 5, 1755 – Six transports with French Neutrals aboard that having met with a furious gale after their departure from Mines Basin, had entered the harbor of Boston, to seek shelter for a number of days. Among these five ships was the Ranger. The had also sought shelter in Boston Harbour for a few days and the delay further further depleted their supplies which were low since the beginning of the voyage. (Maryland Historical Magazine – Vol. III No. 1, March 1908 – “The Acadians (French Neutrals) Transported to Maryland” – Basil Sollers p. 7) While at Boston, the vessel was inspected and it was reported that the passengers aboard the Ranger were “Sickley and their water very bad. They want an allow’e of Rum &c.” ” Their provisions were reported as short, being 1 lb. of beef, 5 lb. Flour and 2 lb. Bread per man per week and too small a quantity to that allowance to carry them to the Parts they are bound to especially at this season of the year; and their water is very bad. (page 7-9 – Maryland Historical Magazine – Vol. III No. 1, March 1908 – “The Acadians (French Neutrals) Transported to Maryland” – Basil Sollers) – (Canadian Archives, Report (1905), II. Appendix A, Part III, E, p. 81) . Also 25 passengers were removed from the Ranger by the Massachusetts Bay authorities to bring the ship’s passenger load to the complement of 2 persons per ton. Fresh water and minimal supplies and assistance was given to the passengers on board the Ranger by the Massachusetts Bay authorities and the vessels sailed southward. After unloading its passengers in Maryland, the Schooner Ranger returned to Nova Scotia and on December 20. 1755 deported 112 French inhabitants from Grand Pre. (Gregory A. Wood – THE FRENCH PRESENCE IN MARYLAND _ 1524-1800 – p. 65-66) (Basil Sollers – THE ACADIANS (FRENCH NEUTRALS) TRANSPORTED TO MARYLAND , p 9), ( Al Lafreniere – “Acadian Deportation Ships The Ranger, Captain Piery, evidently a smaller vessel than either of the other two, arrived with 208, an excess of 81 persons beyond the proper compliment (Nova Scotia Doc., I, 42-4) Edouard Richard mentions a “Corvette Ranger”, 91 tons, Capt. Piercy, being used to transport 182 exiles – (81 additional). (ACADIA” – Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121) The Dolphin with 230 exiles and the Ranger with 263 exiles followed the arrival of the Elizabeth and Leopard in the Annapolis Harbor. The two vessels carried 493 men, women and children from evacuated from Pisiquid under the directions of Captain Alexandre Murray On the last 2 days of the months, the other 3 sloops were anchored in the Severn , but their captains seemed most anxious about the Maryland council’s refusal to permit immediate landing in the absence of Gov. Sharpe, who was attending a conference of colonial executives in New York. In a like manner, Francis Piercey, master of the Ranger, apparently the second boat in harbor, presented the same argument, for he and his sickly 263 exiles from Pisiquid would be required to cross the Bay and sit in port in Oxford, in Talbot County. The Choptank contingent of 208 Acadians reached Oxford on 8 December, 1755, and was placed under the supervision of Henry Callister. (Gregory Wood Acadians in Maryland – A Guide to the Acadians in Maryland in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries.) In a letter dated 17 February, 1996, Stanley Piet of Bel Air Maryland, writes that the “NOTARY PUBLIC RECORD BOOK 1774-1778 in the Hall of Records for the state of Maryland located in the, located at 350 Rowe Blvd., Annapolis Maryland 21401, show the arrival of the ships in Maryland, but there are no people identified. Information listed on the ships Ranger and Dolphin is as follows: “Ranger – Wm. Burkman, Caines Bay, owner. Francis Peirey, Captain, Order from Alexander Murray, Commander of his Majesty’s Troops at Pisgate arrived Severn River, Annapolis 29 November 1755. Sent to Oxford Maryland.” “Dolphin – Zebediah Farnman, master, Sent to Lower Marlborough, Patuxent River”.

RANGER Schooner 57 tons POINTE DES BOUDRO TO VIRGINIA:

The schooner RANGER, 57 tons – Nathan Monroe Captain – departed from Pointe des Boudro (Grand Pre) on 20 December, 1755 with 112 exiles, 81 more that the complement, and was the 6th transport to arrive in Virginia on 20 January, 1756 with with 208 exiles. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 279 -80 and also p.304 ) The schooner RANGER, Monroe Captain – embarked 112 exiles on 20 December departed from Grand Pre on 20 December, 1755 destined for Williamsburg Virginia. (Emile Lauviere – “La Tragedie d’un peuple , vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) The Ranger was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869) According to the publication “The Acadian Exile in St. Malo”, the governor of Virginia refused to accept the Acadians that were allotted to Virginia, and the 1,500 Acadians sent to Virginia on October 25, 1755 were in Virginia were not allowed to disembark and more of them died aboard the crowded ships during the 4 months that the ship were anchored in the Williamsburg harbor. They were then transported to England and placed in concentration camps in the port cities of their arrival, where they languished until after the Treaty of Paris, in 1763, when they were released and repatriated (sent) to the maritime ports of Normandy and Brittany. Emile Lauvriere, in his “LA TRAGEDIE D’UN PEUPLE” – Histoire du Peuple Acadien – des origines a nos jours – 1923- Editions – Bossard – 43 Rue Madame, 43 – Paris – Tome I – 12th edition Chapter XIV “LE ‘GRAND DERANGEMENT'” pp 457-513, in listing some of the vessels used in the expulsion on page 500, refers to the Dove, referred to by others as a sloop as “la goelette Dove, destines for Connecticut”, and two other vessels, referred to by others as schooners as ôla goelette Race Horse, destined for Bostonand “la goelette Ranger, destined for Virginia”, probably indicates that some the ships listed as schooners, or sloops were actually goelettes or vice-versa.

SARAH AND MOLLY or MOLLY (Mully) AND SARAH Corvette (Sloop), 70 tons Captain Haslum:

Edouard Richard mentions a “Corvette Molly and Sarah”, 70 tons, Captain Haslum, master being used to transport 140 exiles. (ACADIA” – Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121) With 140 men aboard.

SALLY AND MOLLY SOMETIMES CALLED SARAH AND MOLLY Sloop 70 (80) tons GRAND PRE TO VIRGINIA:

SARAH AND MOLLY, Sloop, 70 tons – James Purrington, captain – was one of 5 transports that departed from Grand Pre and Gaspereau on 27 October, 1755 with 154 exiles for Virginia and arrived 13 November, 1755. Sloop Sarah & Molly was also known as the Sarah and Molly. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 277 also p. 300) With 160 men aboard. The sloop, SARAH AND MOLLY, 70 tons – James Purrington, captain – arrived in Grand Pre from Port Royal on 10 October and embarked 154 exiles on 19 October. She departed from Grand Pre on 27 October, 1755 destined for Williamsburg Virginia. (Emile Lauviere – “La Tragedie d’un peuple , vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock , to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 – 293 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869 – – The monthly charter fee for the Sarah and Molly was 3 months 13 days at 60s pr month , pounds sterling – plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilot , plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869) The Sloop SARAH AND MOLLY, 70 tons, James Purrenton (Purrington) master from 29 August to 12 December to carry off the French inhabitants from Annapolis Royal to Virginia. The Sarah and Molly was one of the six transports that took shelter from a fierce winter storm in the Boston Harbour on November 5, 1755. While at Boston to seek shelter for a number of days, the vessel was inspected and an 11 Acadians were removed to reduce the number aboard to 2 persons per ton. The delay in the voyage when they were in the Boston Harbour for a few days further depleted their supplies which were low since the beginning of the voyage. Fresh water and minimal supplies and assistance was given to the passengers on board the Sarah and Molly by the Massachusetts Bay authorities and the vessels sailed southward. Edouard Richard mentions a “Corvette ______”, Captain Puddington, (could this be James Purrington, if so, then the unnamed transport is the Sarah and Molly repeated by Edouard Richard) 80 tons – 160 exiles (ACADIA” – Edourd Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121) According to the publication “The Acadian Exile in St. Malo”, the governor of Virginia refused to accept the Acadians that were allotted to Virginia, and the 1,500 Acadians sent to Virginia on October 25, 1755 were in Virginia were not allowed to disembark and more of them died aboard the crowded ships during the 4 months that the ship were anchored in the Williamsburg harbor. They were then transported to England and placed in concentration camps in the port cities of their arrival, where they languished until after the Treaty of Paris, in 1763, when they were released and repatriated (sent) to the maritime ports of Normandy and Brittany.

SEAFLOWER Sloop 81 tons PISIQUID TO MASSACHUSETTS:

The sloop SEAFLOWER, 81 tons – Samuel Harris, Captain, departed from Pisiquid with 206 exiles on 27 October, 1755 destined for Massachusetts, and arrived on 15 November, 1755. The sloop SEAFLOWER, 81 tons – Donnel (Harris), Captain, arrived in Grand Pre from Kitterney Point, Maine in September and embarked 206 exiles (18 surnombres) on 22 October and departed on 27 October, 1755 destined for Boston, Massachusetts, and arrived on 15-30 November, 1755. (Emile Lauviere – “La Tragedie d’un peuple, vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock, to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 – 293 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869 – the Sloop Seaflower, 81 tons, Samuel Harris master, Chartered by Captain Alexander Murray from the Boston Mercantile Co. Apthorp and Hancock to bring off the French inhabitants from Minas to the Province of Massachusetts from 29 Sept to 1 Dec.,1755. (—, 1755). The monthly charter fee for the Seaflower was 2 months 82 days 43 pounds 4 pr month , pounds sterling – plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilott, plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869)

The SEAFLOWER left Kittering Point Maine for Grand Pre in the beginning of September and used a few weeks to transport 206 Acadians from Grand Pre to Boston.

SUNFLOWER (Seaflower) Corvette (Sloop), 81 tons Captain Donnell:

According to Al Lafreniere the SEAFLOWER and the SUNFLOWER are most likely one and the same. However, Edouard Richard mentions a “Corvette Sunflower”, 81 tons, with Captain Donnell as master, being used to transport 180 exiles.(ACADIA” – Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121) With 180 men aboard. And, Emile Lauviere lists the names Donnell and (Harris) as captains of the Sealower (see details of the Seaflower above)(Emile Lauviere – “La Tragedie d’un peuple , vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924)

SWALLOW Brigge 102 tons POINTE DES BOUDRO TO MASSACHUSETTS:

The brigge SWALLOW, 102 tons – William Hayes, Captain, departed on 13 December, 1755 from Pointe des Boudro (Grand Pre) with 236 exiles destined for Massachusetts, and arrived in Boston on 30 January, 1756.(The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 279 -80 and also p. 277) The brigge SWALLOW, – Hayes, Captain, embarked 236 Acadians in Grand Pre on 18 December destined for Boston Massachusetts. (Emile Lauviere – “La Tragedie d’un peuple , vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) The Brigantine Swallow was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, published in 1869 by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865)

SWAN Sloop 80 tons GRAND PRE TO PENNSYLVANIA:

The sloop SWAN, 80 tons – Jonathan Loviette, Captain, departed from Grand Pre and Gaspereau on 27 October, 1755 with 168 exiles destined for Pennsylvania – The Swan departed with the sloop Hannah and they arrived on 19 November, 1755.(The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 279 -80 and also p.277 ) The sloop SWAN, 80 tons – Loviett, Captain, arrived in Grand Pre from Port Royal on 10 October. She embarked 168 Acadians and departed from Grand Pre and Gaspereau destined for Philadelphia Pennsylvania – The Swan arrived with 161 Acadians. (Emile Lauviere – “La Tragedie d’un peuple , vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock , to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 – 293 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869 – The Sloop Swan, Jona. Loviett, Master was chartered from Boston Mercantile Co. Apthorp and Hancock from the 27th Aug to 23 Dec, 1755 to carry off French inhabitants from Annapolis Royall to Philadelphia. (—, 1755) – The monthly charter fee for the Swan was 3 months 26 days at 44 16 per month , pounds sterling – plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilott, plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869) Upon their arrival in Pennsylvania, the colony was in the grips of raging Francophobia, which soon translated into Pennsylvania’s governor Robert H. Morris’ placing the exiles under armed guard aboard the three vessels, the HANNAH, THREE FRIENDS and the SWAN) that brought them from Nova Scotia. Because of this, the Acadians aboard these vessels succumbed to epidemic diseases. They were then quarantined aboard their vessels until legislation on March 5, 1756 provided for their dispersal throughout the easternmost Pennsylvania provinces. (Carl A. Brasseaux – Scattered to the Winds – The Dispersal and Wanderings of the Acadians, p. 19) According to Al Lafreniere the SWAN, Jonathan Loviett, Master, left Grand Pre with 168 exiles, and arrived in Pennsylvania with 161 exiles. (Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.). Sloops Hannah, Three Friends and Swan reached the Delaware about 18 November, 1755 with 454 aboard and were sent to province Island and later in ucks, Chester, Lancaster, and Philadelphia Counties. The exiles declared that their plight to be far worse than the old Testament world of Egyptian or Babylonian captivity. (p. 18 – Gregory Wood Acadians in Maryland – A Guide to the Acadians in Maryland in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries.)

SYREN Sloop 30 tons Escort Vessel and Transport GRAND PRE TO S. CAROLINA:

The sloop SYREN, 30 tons – Charles Proby Captain, served as both transport and escort vessel. The Syren departed from Grand Pre on 13 October, 1755 with 21 exiles and arrived in South Carolina on 19 November, 1755. The SYREN, Charles Proby, master, was an escort ship, but also carried 21 French prisoners to South Carolina. Nine of these prisoners were considered to be too dangerous to remain in the colonies, and were shipped to England almost immediately. The SYREN continued escorting the other transports to Georgia. (Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.).

THREE FRIENDS Sloop 69 tons PISIQUID TO PENNSYLVANIA:

The sloop THREE FRIENDS, 69 tons – Thomas Curtis, Captain (Capt. Carlile) – departed from Pisiquid on 27 October, 1755 with 156 exiles 18 more that the complement destined for Pennsylvania. The transport arrived in Pennsylvania on 21 November, 1755 (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 279 -80 and also p.279) The sloop THREE FRIENDS, 69 tons – Capt. Carlile – arrived in Pisiquid from Port Royal on 12 October. She departed from Pisiquid on 27 October, 1755 with destined for Philadelphia Pennsylvania. The transport arrived in Philadelphia on 15-30 November with 156 Acadians.. (Emile Lauviere – “La Tragedie d’un peuple , vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924) According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock , to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 – 293 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869 – The Sloop “Three Friends” Jas Carlile master was chartered from the Boston Mercantile Co. Apthorp and Hancock from hence to Annapolis Royal & Philadelphia to carry off French Inhabitants from August 20th to 23 December, 1755 – 18 Neutrals more than Compliment. The monthly charter fee for the Three Friends was 4 months 3 days at 36 16s pr mth , pounds sterling – plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilott, plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869) On October 14, 1755 , Captain Alexander Murray writes: “0n this fateful Oct. 14th: ” I am at this moment embarking the people on board the two Sloops: the “Three Friends” and the “Dolphin”. The shipping point north end of Pisiquid at the junction of the Avon and St. Croix rivers. (Photo copy of an article that appeared in the Windsor, N.S. newspaper entitled “EXPULSION OF ACADIANS ORGANIZED AT WINDSOR”) Upon their arrival in Pennsylvania, the colony was in the grips of raging francophobia, which soon translated into Pennsylvania’s governor Robert H. Morris placing the exiles under armed guard aboard the three vessels, the HANNAH, THREE FRIENDS and the SWAN that had transported them from Nova Scotia. Because of this, the Acadians aboard these three vessels succumbed to epidemic diseases. They were then quarantined aboard their vessels until legislation on March 5, 1756 provided for their dispersal throughout the easternmost Pennsylvania provinces. (Carl A. Brasseaux – Scattered to the Winds – The Dispersal and Wanderings of the Acadians, p. 19) Edouard Richard mentions a Schooner Three Friends, 69 tons, Captain Carlisle being used to transport 138 exiles – (18 additional) (ACADIA” – Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121) Sloops Hannah, Three Friends and Swan reached the Delaware about 18 November, 1755 with 454 aboard and were sent to province Island and later in ucks, Chester, Lancaster, and Philadelphia Counties. The exiles declared that their plight to be far worse than the old Testament world of Egyptain or Babylonian captivity. (p. 18 – Gregory Wood Acadians in Maryland – A Guide to the Acadians in Maryland in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries).

TWO BROTHERS Brigge 161 tons CHIGNECTO TO SOUTH CAROLINA:

The brigge TWO BROTHERS, 161 tons – James Best, Captain, departed from Chignecto with 132 exiles on 13 October, 1755 and arrived in S. Carolina on 11 November, 1755. The exiles tried a takeover of the Brigantine TWO BROTHERS, but failed. (Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.). The Brigantine Two Brothers was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865 in 1869).

TWO SISTERS Snow 140 tons ANNAPOLIS ROYAL TO CONNECTICUT:

According to Al Lafreniere, the TWO SISTERS never left Annapolis Royal. It was replaced with the ship ELIZABETH. The TWO SISTERS was supposed to carry 280 French. This is what the Ship ELIZABETH carried (42 men, 40 women 95 boys and 103 girls for a total of 280 exiles). The Two Sisters, 140 tons, with a total of 280 Acadians, 42 men, 40 women, 95 boys and 103 girls destined for Connecticut on a voyage of 28 days (Emile Lauviere -“La Tragedie d’un peuple , vol 1, p. 485, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924)Two Sisters, 280, for Connecticut. (“Carles Belliveau et les seins durant la Deportation et apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens” by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973, p. 4.) The snow TWO SISTERS, 140 tons – (T. Ingram ?) Captain, departed on 13 October, 1755 from Annapolis Royal with 280 exiles and arrived in Connecticut on ?? The TWO SISTERS, Captain’s name unknown, (perhaps T. Ingram, who was master of this snow in 1757, The Two Sisters is not shown arriving in Connecticut. It is possible that this is the ship reported in the newspapers of the day as putting in at Rhode Island. The ship was bound for New London, Connecticut with approximately 250 exiles. It is also possible that it could have sunk. (Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.). The Snow Two Sisters was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, published 1865 in 1869 by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15).

UNION Ship 196 tons CHIGNECTO TO PENNSYLVANIA:

The ship UNION, 196 tons, Jonathon Crathorne, Captain, departed from Chignecto on 13 October, 1755 with 392 exiles and was to arrive in Pennsylvania on ?? According to Al Lafreniere, the UNION probably sunk off the coast of Maryland or Pennsylvania. Several of the newspapers of the day reported two ships carrying French sinking in the area. The UNION, Jonathan Crathorn, Captain, probably sunk off the coast of Pennsylvania, or may have gone to Boston. There is no record of its arrival in Pennsylvania. (Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.). The Ship Union was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published in 1869 by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865)

UNKNOWN GOELETTE 30 tons destined for South Carolina:

“Unknown” Goelette, 30 tons destined for South Carolina, for a 42 day voyage with 1 man, 1 woman, 4 boys and 3 girls for a total of 9 passengers. (Emile Lauviere -“La Tragedie d’un peuple, vol 1, p. 485, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924). Emile Lauvriere, in his “LA TRAGEDIE D’UN PEUPLE” – Histoire du Peuple Acadien – des origines a nos jours – 1923- Editions – Bossard – 43 Rue Madame, 43 – Paris – Tome I – 12th edition Chapter XIV “LE ‘GRAND DERANGEMENT'” pp 457-513, refers to this vessel as “une Goelette”. However, in listing some of the other vessels used in the expulsion, he refers to the sloop Dove, as ‘la goelette Dove’, schooner Racehorse as ‘la goelette Race Horse’ and and schooner Ranger as ‘la goelette Ranger’. And, following a long list of other vessels he refers to one as ‘Une Goelette’. I am not sure if he means that the vessel was named “une Goelette, or he is referring to an unknown schooner by the French name goelette. This is possible, because as noted above, he refers to other vessels, described by others as being, schooners or sloops, as ‘la goelete’, probably indicating the vessel was an unknown goelette. A schooner, for South Carolina, with 9 persons. (“Carles Belliveau et les seins durant la Deportation et apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens” by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973, p. 4.) (See description of vessels).

UNKNOWN Sloop MINAS BAY TO CONNECTICUT:

According to Al Lafreniere, the Connecticut Gazette (copy in the Yale University library) mentions the sloop (name and tonnage unknown (John?) Worster, Captain – departed from Minas Bay with 173 exiles on 30 November, 1755 and arrived in Connecticut on 22 January, 1756. (I corrected a typographical error on the list of ships in the LaFreniere article). The Sloop (NAME UNKNOWN), Captain Worster, master, arrived in Connecticut with 173 exiles from Minas Bay on January 22, 1756. This may be Captain John Worster of Stanford, Connecticut, who died March, 1775. He had lived the last 12 years of his life in Barbados. Captain Worster is mentioned in Col. Winslow’s Journal. On October 27. 1755, he left Fort Cumberland with two letters for Col. Winslow. From this we know that he did not depart with the main body of the fleet, but departed later. Since there are exiles in Connecticut from Cape Sable, Beaubassin, Piziquid and Grand Pre. It is possible that he was assigned to pick up stragglers, and finally fill out at Grand Pre before departing Minas Bay. Winslow shows 732 exiles shipped by Osgood, but only 600 are accounted for. The remainder could have been shipped earlier on Captain Worster’s sloop. This sloop was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published in 1869 by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865).

VULTURE Sloop PORT LATURE TO MASSACHUSETTS:

The sloop VULTURE, ? tons, Johnston Scaife, Captain, departed from Port Lature on ?? with 70 exiles and arrived in Massachusetts on 10 May, 1756. The Vulture was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot’s fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published in 1869 by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865)

The newspapers of the time also reported three other vessels with exiles that were sent to Boston, or just passing through. They were:

1. December 26, 1755 — a vessel with a considerable number of French exiles.
2. January 5, 1756 — A ship from Halifax.
3. January ?, 1756 — A snow with the largest number of French exiles yet, from Malagash.(Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.).

ESCORT SHIPS OF THE EXPULSION:

“On the 29 Oct. 1755 the Fleet sailed from the Rendezvous in the Basin of Mines under the Convoy of His Majesty’s Ships”: These ships were charged with escorting the ships being used in the deportation of the Acadians.

BALTIMORE SLOOP/WAR FROM GOAT ISLAND AT ANNAPOLIS ROYAL TO SOUTH CAROLINA:

The war/sloop Baltimore, T. Owen, Captain, escorted a convoy of 2 ships, 3 snows and one brigantine from Goat Island, at Annapolis Royal, to South Carolina. The Baltimore departed from Goat Island on 8 December, 1755 arrived in South Carolina on ??. The 6 transports that the Baltimore escorted in December, 1755, carried an average of 278 Acadian exiles each. This is in contrast to the average of 167 per transport that was carried off in October, 1755. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 269) Vice Admiral Edward Boscawen, informed John Cleveland, Esq., Secretary to the Admiralty, that he included the Baltimore, Captain Owen, as one of the ships to convoy the transports that were to carry the Acadians from Annapolis Royal to New York; (“Charles Belliveau et les seins durant la Deportation apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens” by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973, p. 4)

CAROLINA (2 SHIPS NAMED CAROLINA) FROM MINAS BAY TO VIRGINIA:

Vice Admiral Edward Boscawen, informed John Cleveland, Esq., Secretary to the Admiralty, that he included the two Carolinas as two of the ships to convoy the transports that were to carry the Acadians from Mines to Virginia, and Maryland (“Charles Belliveau et les seins durant la Deportation apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens” by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973, p. 4)

HALIFAX SNOW FROM MINAS BAY TO VIRGINIA:

The snow Halifax, John Taggart Captain, departed from Minas Bay to Virginia. The dates of her departure and arrival is unknown. However, the Snow (Halifax), Captain Taggert, was listed by Edouard Richard as an escort for the transports that departed in October, 1755. (ACADIA” – Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121)

HORNET SHIP ANNAPOLIS ROYALL TO MASSACHUSETTS:

The ship Hornet, Captain __?__ Salt, Master departed from Annapolis Royal on 28 October, 1755 and arrived in Massachusetts on 17 November, 1755. The Hornet was to proceed to Boston and then on to Spithead. – (Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.). Vice Admiral Edward Boscawen, informed John Cleveland, Esq., Secretary to the Admiralty, that he included the Hornet, Captain Salt, as one of the ships to convoy the transports that were to carry the Acadians from Annapolis Royal to Boston, and then to Spithead; (“Charles Belliveau et les seins durant la Deportation apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens” by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973, p. 4).

MERMAID SHIP FROM ANNAPOLIS ROYAL TO MASSACHUSETTS:

The ship Mermaid, Captain Wash. Shirley, departed from Annapolis Royal on 13 October, 1755 and arrived at Massachusetts on 17 November, 1755. Vice Admiral Edward Boscawen, informed John Cleveland, Esq., Secretary to the Admiralty, that he included the Mermaid, captain SHIRLEY, as one of the ships to convoy the transports that were to carry the Acadians to Connecticut. (“Charles Belliveau et les seins durant la Deportation apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens” by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 197, p. 4)

NIGHTINGALE SHIP MINAS BAY TO MARYLAND:

The ship Nightingale, Dudley Diggs Captain, was part of the 3 warship escort to the 24 transports that sailed from Minas Bay on October 28, 1755 (some say October 13th). The Nightingale was destined for Maryland and the date of arrival is unknown. (Probably didn’t arrive at all). The Nightingale was separated from the rest of the convoy of transports and escort vessels during a violent storm (Severe Storms and a massive earthquake occurred at the time of the deportation) and landed at New York. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 287) – also (Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.).(ACADIA” – Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121) Vice Admiral Edward Boscawen, informed John Cleveland, Esq., Secretary to the Admiralty, that he included the Nightingale, Captain DIGGS, to convoy the transports that were to carry the Acadians from Mines to Pennsylvania, then proceed to his station at New York. (“Charles Belliveau et les seins durant la Deportation apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens” by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973, p. 4)

SUCCESS SHIP FROM CHIGNECTO TO SOUTH CAROLINA:

The ship Success, John Rouse, Captain, departed from Chignecto on 13 October, 1755 and was to proceed with the fleet to South Carolina. Her arrival date is unknown. (Albert N. Lafreniere – “ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS” – “Connecticut Maple Leaf”, volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.) Vice Admiral Edward Boscawen, informed John Cleveland, Esq., Secretary to the Admiralty, that he included the Success, Captain ROUS, as one of the ships to convoy the transports that were to carry the Acadians ,to assist in embarking them and to look into the St. John River. (“Charles Belliveau et les seins durant la Deportation apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens”, by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973, p. 4)

H.M.S. SYREN FROM CHIGNECTO (FORT BEAUSEJOUR) TO GEORGIA:

H.M.S. Syren, Charles Proby, Esq. Commander, escorted 2 transports that were sent from Chignecto (Fort Beausejour) and destined for Georgia. The Syren arrived at Tybee island at the mouth of the Savanah River with 120 exiles , mostly women and children. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 287) They passed the bar on November 27th (reported in the N.Y. newspaper N.Y. Mercury). They were prevented from landing so they departed for Augusta. An account of the arrival of 3 ships escorted by H.M.S. Syren: “on Saturday arrived here, under convoy of H.M.S. Syren, Charles Proby, Esq., Commander, from the Bay of Fundy in Nova Scotia, a ship, a Brigantine and a sloop, having on board 471 of French Neutrals (ship 210, brigantine 137, and sloop 124, and we hear that several children have been born in passage. And the next day: “The same day (yesterday) arrived here another sloop with 127 French from Nova Scotia, but last from Boston. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution – Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson, p. 291) Vice Admiral Edward Boscawen, informed John Cleveland, Esq., Secretary to the Admiralty, that he included the SYREN, Captain PROBY, as one of the ships to convoy the transports that were to carry the Acadians from Chignecto to Georgia.(“Charles Belliveau et les seins durant la Deportation apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens”, by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973, p. 4).

WARREN SCHOONER FROM MINAS BAY TO SOUTH CAROLINA:

The armed schooner, Warren, Captain Adams, was an escort for the transports. (ACADIA” – Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121) The schooner Warren, Abraham Adams, Captain, departed from Minas Bay on 13 October, 1755, destined for South Carolina. The date of arrival in South Carolina is unknown.

YORK SHIP FROM ANNAPOLIS ROYAL TO BOSTON:

The ship York, Sylvanns Cobb, Captain, departed from Annapolis Royal on 13 October, 1755 and arrived at Boston on 17 November, 1755.

***

THE EXILE EXTENDS TO EUROPE AS THE TRAGEDY CONTINUES IN THE STORMY NORTH ATLANTIC:

The ships that are reported to have transported the Acadians from the Bay of Canso to St. Malo France were:

ANTELOPE Tonnage and Captain unknown. Ile Royale (Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) and then to ST MALO, France. The ANTELOPE, disembarked at St. Malo on November 1, 1758. No additional information about the ANTELOPE is known to the writer at this time.

DUKE WILLIAM Tonnage and Captain unknown. Ile Royale (Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) and then to France. The Duke William was among the transports used in November, 1758 to transport the Acadians of Ile Royale (now Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) to France. The Duke William was delayed with the other vessels, shortly after their departure in the Gut of Canso until November 25, 1758 when they finally set sail for France. After three days at sea a storm blew at night with rough and high seas and sleet and rain. The storm lasted a couple of days. After a couple of weeks, the Duke William, with 300 Exiles aboard, and the Violet, with 400 Acadian Exiles aboard, joined together, but the Violet was taking on water and was in danger of sinking, and on about December 10th or,15th, (some say December 13th), following a squall in the early morning, the Violet had sunk to the bottom and all 400 Acadians board perished. After working frantically for 4 days, trying to bale out the water, they gave up and the captain and the crew of the Duke William abandoned the ship in the lifeboats (twenty seven in one and nine in the other, including captain Nicols) four Acadians threw over a small jolly boat and miraculously reached England with the two life boats. It is believed that some 300 + Acadians perished aboard the Duke William, while the captain and crew saved themselves with the lifeboats. However, it was reported that the DUKE WILLIAM, that had embarked with 346, had disembarked, in St. Malo on November 1, 1758, and 147 had died during the voyage. (The Duke William was also reported to have sunk with the Violet in a storm on December 13, 1758. This is an error, or there may have been two vessels named Duke Williams, used.)

HIND Tonnage and Captain unknown. Ile Royale (Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) and then to ST MALO, France. No additional information about the HIND is known to the writer at this time.

JOHN SAMUELS Tonnage and Captain unknown Ile Royale (Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) and then to ST MALO, France. The JOHN SAMUEL, disembarked at St. Malo on January 23, 1759. No additional information about the JOHN SAMUEL is known to the writer at this time.

MATHIAS Tonnage and Captain unknown Ile Royale (Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) and then to ST MALO, France. The MATHIAS, disembarked at St. Malo on January 23, 1759. No additional information about the MATHIAS is known to the writer at this time.

NAUTILES Tonnage and Captain unknown Ile Royale (Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) and then to ST MALO, France. No additional information about the NAUTILES is known to the writer at this time.

NARCISSUS Tonnage and Captain unknown Ile Royale (Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) and then to ST MALO, France. No additional information about the NARCISSUS is known to the writer at this time.

PATIENCE Tonnage and Captain unknown Ile Royale (Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) and then to ST MALO, France. The PATIENCE, disembarked at St. Malo on January 23, 1759. No additional information about the PATIENCE is known to the writer at this time.

QUEEN OF SPAIN Tonnage and Captain unknown Ile Royale (Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) and then to ST MALO, France. The QUEEN OF SPAIN embarked with 108 aboard , and disembarked at St. Malo on November 17, 1758 with only 50 Acadians. It was reported that 58 died during the voyage.

RESTORATION Tonnage and Captain unknown Ile Royale (Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) and then to ST MALO, France. The RESTORATION, disembarked at St. Malo on January 23, 1759. No additional information about the RESTORATION is known to the writer at this time.

SUPPLY Tonnage and Captain unknown Ile Royale (Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) and then to ST MALO, France. The SUPPLY embarked with 163, disembarked at St. Malo on 9 March, 1759 –25 died. No additional information about the SUPPLY is known to the writer at this time.

TAMBERLAN Tonnage unknown, Captain unknown Ile Royale (Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) destination St. Malo France. The TAMERLAN, disembarked at St. Malo on January 16, 1759. No additional information about the TAMERLAN is known to the writer at this time.

VIOLET Tonnage unknown, Captain Nichols ?? Ile Royale (Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) destination, St. Malo, France. After the fall of Louisbourg in July of 1758, the Violet was among the transports that were assembled in November, 1758 to transport the Acadians of Ile Royale (now Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) to France. However, soon after their departure, the transports were delayed in the Gut of Canso until November 25, 1758 when they finally set sail for France. After three days at sea a storm blew at night with rough and high seas and sleet and rain. The storm lasted a couple of days. After a couple of weeks, the Violet, with 400 Acadian Exiles aboard, and the Duke William, with 300 Exiles aboard, joined together, but the Violet was taking on water and was in danger of sinking and had to separate. After a squall in the early morning, on about December 10th, or 15th, (some say December 13th), the Violet sank to the bottom with all 400 Acadians board.

YARMOUTH Tonnage and Captain unknown Ile Royale (Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) and then to ST MALO, France. The YARMOUTH, disembarked at St. Malo on January 23, 1759. No additional information about the YARMOUTH is known to the writer at this time.

NAME OF SHIP ___?___ Tonnage and Captain unknown Ile Royale (Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) and then to St Malo, France. The “FIVE SHIPS ” embarked from of Ile Royale (now Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) with 992, and disembarked at St. Malo on January 23, 1759. It was reported that 340 died during the voyage. The vessels referred to as the “five ships” could have included the: YARMOUTH, MATHIAS, RESTORATION, PATIENCE and JOHN SAMUEL.

NAME UNKNOWN Tonnage and Captain unknown Ile Royale (Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) and then to France. After the fall of Louisbourg in July of 1758, this unknown vessel was among the transports that were assembled in November, 1758 to transport the Acadians of Ile Royale ( now Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) to France. This vessel and all of the Acadians aboard met with a similar fate as those mentioned above.

***

After the fall of Louisbourg in July of 1758, It was decided that the Acadians of Ile Royale (now Cape Breton), Ile St-Jean (Prince Edward Island) transport to France and the transports were assembled in November, 1758. However, soon after their departure, the transports were delayed in the Gut of Canso until November 25, 1758 when they finally set sail for France. After three days at sea a storm blew at night with rough and high seas and sleet and rain, and these stormy conditions separated the ships. The storm lasted a couple of days, and it is believed that at least three of the transports with all of the Acadians aboard perished It is estimated that some 1300 Acadians were lost at sea during the voyage to France in the winter of 1758. Between September 8, 1758 and November 5, 1758 it was believed that 2,200 Acadians were embarked on 16 ships destined for France. Although these transports embarked from Acadia some 3 years after the massive expulsion of the fall of 1755, some of the transports that were known to be used for this expulsion are listed above. An account of the three ships that are believed to have sunk with all of the Acadians aboard, can be found in the Acadian Genealogy Exchange, Vol XIX # 3 p. 75 and again In the AGE, Vol XIX # 2 1990 p. 38-40 and in the publication, “The Acadian Exile in St. Malo”. Steven White and Father d’Entremont discuss the sinking of the Duke William and the Violet. The Acadians that were shipped directly to France, disembarked at St. Malo on January 23, 1759 from the “five ships”, later identified as the YARMOUTH, MATHIAS, RESTORATION, PATIENCE and JOHN SAMUEL. After the loss of the DUKE WILLIAM and VIOLET, 9 ships were reported to be in the convoy.

Very stormy conditions separated the ships and on December 10, 1758, the DUKE WILLIAM came upon the VIOLET that was listing and in danger of sinking. While assisting the Violet, there was a violent explosion aboard the DUKE WILLIAM. The Violet sank on December 12, 1758 and the DUKE WILLIAM sank on December 13, 1758. Some survivors from the DUKE WILLIAM reached the seaport of Penzanet England in a life boat. Of the 346 aboard the Duke William, only 4 Acadians and a priest survived. It was reported that 199 Acadians disembarked from the DUKE WILLIAM at St. Malo on November, 1758. This caused some confusion, unless there were two ships named DUKE WILLIAM.

LIVING CONDITIONS ON THE DEPORTATION SHIPS

Before leaving Boston the ships had been renovated by removing the balast stones and the bulk heads of the holds. This created a large area in the hold of the vessel measuring approximately 24 feet wide by 60 feet long and 15 feet high. This space was then divided into three levels, and allowing for the thickness of the two floors that separated the space the three levels were just slightly over 4 feet high. 300 people, some times more, were crowded into this space for up to 3 months. During this time, only half of the passengers could lie down shoulder to shoulder, the rest would have to sit or stoop shoulder to shoulder, since a grown person could not stand erect in the hold of the ship. Most of the other deportation vessels had cargo holds were much smaller that the space on the schooner described above, yet they were filled with over 5,000 prisoners during the fall months of 1755. In each case, there were no sanitary facilities available, which resulted in outbreaks of small pox, and their rations consisted mainly of bread, water and flour and they lacked sufficient clothing for an Atlantic voyage in the middle of the winter.

THE INHUMANITY OF THE EXPULSION TAKES A TRAGIC TOLL LOST AT SEA

Four ships left from the Minas Bay for Pennsylvania, but only three ships arrived in Pennsylvania on November 21 and 22, 1755. When the fourth vessel failed to arrive at its destination in Pennsylvania, it was reported to have been lost during a hurricane, disappearing with all on board. (THE BRITISH EMPIRE BEFORE THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION – Gipson – p. 308) The sloop Three Friends, sloop Swan, sloop Hannah are reported to have left from the Minas Basin on October 27, and arrived in Pennsylvania on November 21-22, 1755, while the schooner Boscowans and the Ship Union, are reported to have sailed from Chignecto on October 13th and joined the fleet in the Minas Basin and probably set sail with the rest of the fleet on Oct 27-28, 1755, there is no record of their arrival in Pennsylvania. One of these vessels, or both may have sunk. A “Memoire sur les Acadiens” (1763) has the following comment: “The Acadians on the fourth transport destined for Pennsylvania suffered less than those of whom we have spoken; a hurricane, having engulfed their ship, suddenly put an end to the miseries that awaited them” (Canadian Archives, Report (1905), II, Appendix G, 151). Governor Morris also was notified of the coming of a fourth vessel. Writing to the proprietors on November 22, 1755, he stated: “Yesterday and today three vessels are arrived from Nova Scotia, and a fourth is coming with Neutral French that Governor Lawrence has sent to remain in this province”. (Pennsylvania Archives, fourth series, II, 554) (“The British Empire before the American Revolution” – p. 308).

Unlike some ‘well-known’ genealogist(s) who think they own public documents posted on their web site(s), my good friend, Dr. Don Landry and I share a common belief… (my belief was passed-on to me, by my deceased father, who told me) … “the more you GIVE in life, the more you will RECEIVE!”

I derive most of enjoyment from this great genealogy hobby, through the SHARING of information! I am very grateful to the author of the above-noted, Dr. Don Landry, D.D.S. 6512 Schouest Street Metairie, Louisiana 70003 1-504-455-5596 (All Rights Reserved), who provided me permission to reproduced the above-noted, in its entirety, from his excellent LandryStuff web site.

The following is an article written by Father Clarence J. d’Entremont, which was published in…

The Vanguard in 1989 and 1990.

Father Clarence J. d’Entremont
(1909-1998)

THE SINKING OF THE DUKE WILLIAM AND OF THE VIOLET TAKING THE ACADIANS INTO EXILE

Yarmouth Vanguard, Tuesday, April 3, 1990

We know that there have been three transports, taking The Acadians into exile in France, which perished. One was the Duke William, which was conveying 300 Acadians, another the Violet, with 400 Acadians. We do not have the name of the third vessel, nor the number of Acadians who were on board; all that we know is that this third transport was lost on the coasts of Spain. A figure of 1,300 has been given of those who perished at sea at the time.

This took place after the fall of Louisburg in July, 1758. A certain number of transports were to take into exile the Acadians of “Ile Royale”, now Cape Breton, while others were to take those of “Ile Saint-Jean”, now Prince Edward Island, the Duke William and the Violet being two of these. Capt. Nichols, who commanded the Duke William, objected to the authorities that it was impossible for his vessel, on account of its condition, “of his arriving safe in Old France at that season of the year”. Nevertheless, he was compelled to receive [t]he Acadians on board and to proceed upon the voyage, I may note here that it is chiefly to Capt. Nichols that we owe the account of these disasters.

They left the island in November; the exact date is not given. On account of the wind being contrary, the fleet had to lay in the Gut of Canso till November 25, when, thanks to a strong gale from the N. W., they were able to sail out. There had only been three days that they were at sea, when a storm blew at night, with sleet and rain, the sea running “mountains high”. This lasted a couple of days. That is when the fleet was dispersed.

After having been separated for a couple of weeks, the Duke William and the Violet were rejoined on December 10th. Capt. Sugget, of the Violet, told Capt. Nichols that his vessel was in a terrible condition, that it had taken a great deal of water, that the pumps were clogged and that he was afraid that she would sink before morning. There was at the time a gale, which kept on increasing. The Duke William set its three pumps ready in case that they would be needed.

At 4 o’clock next morning, the Duke William received a terrible blow from the rough sea. And lo and behold, it began to take water, a sure sign that had spring a leak. When it was discovered that the water was filling in quite fast, the captain woke up all the Acadians, told them of the danger and put them to work with the pumps. At day-break, they noticed that the Violet, at a little distance, was in a miserable condition it was evident that she could not last. “It came on a most violent squall for ten minutes, and when it cleared up, they found, to their great and deep concern, that the poor unfortunate Violet, with near four hundred souls, was gone to the bottom”.

As for the Duke William, everybody worked frantically to save her. All the hatches were opened, and as the water flowed fast into the hold, they filled tubs and hauled them up while the pumps were constantly at work. Every method was tried which was thought of service. Notwithstanding their endeavours, the ship kept filling with water, being expected to sink at any moment.

At about 6 o’clock on the morning of the fourth day, they at last realized that nothing could be done to save the ship. Aboard with the Acadians was Father Girard, their pastor. The captain asked him to tell his people of the miserable fate that was awaiting them. He harangued them for half an hour, telling them to be prepared to meet their Eternal Judge, and finally he gave them general absolution.

Twice they saw ships afar off, although close enough that they could have noticed the Duke William. Once, Cpt. Nichols hoisted the English ensign, the other time, the Dutch. Also the guns were fired at full blast. But both times those ships, which could have rescued them, slipped away; as it was at the time of the Seven Years’ War, those ships probably did not dare approach the Duke William, which was quite a large vessel.

Then came the awesome pronouncement of the captain, which “in his own judgement was right”, according to his own words, by which he was “sending four hundred (sic) persons to eternity”.

At the same time, two lifeboats were lowered to the water, in which embarked the captain and his crew, leaving the poor Acadians to their unmerciful destiny. “Seeing the priest lay his arms over the rails in great emotion, with all the apprehensions of death pointed in is countenance, the captain asked him if he were willing to take his chance with him. He replied, “yes”. After giving a last benediction to his parishioners who were about to die, “he tucked up his canonical robes, and went into the boat”. Nobody is asked to be a hero. Nevertheless, Father Girard has been blamed for willingly not sharing the fate of his people. Capt. Pile, commenting on this tragedy, says: “The argument made use of by the priest for leaving the Frenchmen was that he hoped to save the souls of other heretics, meaning the English, and bring them to God along with him”.

Capt. Nichols does not tell us of the screaming, nor of the scenes of horror and of awesome despair that took place among the Acadians at the moment that they were to be swallowed by the sea. “One Frenchman only went into the boat, on which his wife said: ‘Will you thus leave your wife and children to perish without you!’ Remorse touched him and he returned to share their fate”. In the meantime four Acadians, two being married, threw overboard a small jolly-boat along with two oars, and swam to it.

Those four Acadians just had time to climb aboard their makeshift lifeboat, while the two other lifeboats had already reached a short distance away, that the Duke William started to go down, when the decks blew up, making a noise like that of the explosion of a gun or of the loud clap of thunder, drowning for a moment the cries, the screans, the screeches of three hundred agonizing wretches who were being cast all over the water like flies, clamoring and frantically agitating hands and feet in despair, in the midst of a wide spread churn, while they disappeared one by one, swallowed up, in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, way down deep to the bottom of the sea.

The two lifeboats, with twenty-seven in one and nine in the other including Capt. Nichols and Father Girard, after a series of distresses reached after a while the south-western tip of England, close to Falmouth. Miraculously, the jolly-boat also reached England safely.

Capt. Nichols’ account has been published in London and Glasgow by George Winslow Barrington, in his work “Remembering Voyages & Shipwrecks”, now very rare. The Acadians Historical Society (Moncton, N.B.) has given a transcription of it in 1968 in its quarterly.

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